Nitin Vig, Chief Architect, APAC Solution Specialist Engineering, Juniper Networks

Architectural Shift in the 5G Era | Juniper Networks at Asia Tech Singapore CommunicAsia 2021

Nitin Vig
Image text says "ATxSG: Redefining Tech for a Better Future" to introduce a talk by Nitin Vig, Chief Architect, APAC Solution Specialist Engineering, Juniper Networks on the Architectural Shift in the 5G Era.

The 5G era as begun.

Listen to two solution architects to discuss the impact 5G has on operator networks and what architectural shifts it’s causing inside the networks.

Show more

You’ll learn

  • Key architecture shift in telco networks due to 5G 

  • 5G architecture building blocks across RAN, transport, and core 

  • How to create value and differentiation with network slicing and ORAN

Who is this for?

Security Professionals Network Professionals


Nitin Vig
Nitin Vig
Chief Architect, APAC Solution Specialist Engineering, Juniper Networks 

Guest speakers

Aditya Kaul
Aditya Kaul
Solution Architect, Professional Services, APAC, Juniper Networks


0:00 [Music]

0:11 hello and welcome

0:12 to this session on architectural shift

0:14 in 5g

0:15 my name is nitin wake and i'm joined

0:17 today by my colleague aditya khal

0:19 we're both solution architects in the

0:21 juniper networks apac team

0:23 and today we want to discuss with you

0:24 about how 5g is

0:26 impacting the operator networks and what

0:28 architectural shifts it's causing inside

0:29 the networks

0:30 so let's get right into it

0:34 so the 5g era has already begun we've

0:36 got about 158 different operators who've

0:39 launched services on 5g

0:40 100 million plus subscribers that are

0:42 already using id services

0:44 and about a trillion dollars of

0:45 cataracts that has been allocated

0:47 specifically for 5g

0:48 investments between 2018 to 2025.

0:51 if you look at from the perspective of

0:53 the segments that is going to impact

0:55 it includes enterprise government as

0:58 well as consumer services

1:00 but the key question that comes up quite

1:02 often is that what is

1:03 that killer application for 5g

1:06 unfortunately that's a big that's a

1:07 question that's difficult to answer

1:09 but if we look at some of the high level

1:11 analysis and trends it's very clear that

1:14 while we don't know what that killer

1:16 application is going to be we definitely

1:18 know that the killer segment

1:19 is going to be enterprise there's about

1:22 a 3.4 trillion dollars that's expected

1:24 to be invested

1:25 by the enterprise within this 5g

1:28 technology

1:29 and this is just the 5g mobile

1:31 technology

1:32 along with that there's going to be

1:34 cloud and ai and all the other

1:36 investments that will go

1:37 along with this so the enterprise is the

1:40 segment that is going to

1:41 be the largest investor in 5g as well as

1:44 is going to be the largest

1:45 benefit reaper out of this technology if

1:48 you look at some of these industries

1:49 such as industrial automation

1:51 industrial automation is expected to

1:53 have 18 of this 3.4 trillion

1:56 dollar share of the investment and this

1:58 is going to impact everything from

2:00 any machines or the smallest chip which

2:02 is going to be either tracked

2:04 or controlled through wireless

2:05 technology similarly if you look at

2:08 other

2:08 other areas like healthcare or robotics

2:11 there's going to be a huge

2:12 impact that 5g is going to have in these

2:15 domains

2:15 arvr for example is going to impact the

2:18 retail segment

2:19 in a very significant way of how we will

2:21 interact and shop

2:22 in the new edge retail malls if you look

2:26 at the consumer segment

2:27 the consumer segment the cloud gaming is

2:29 expected to be one of the biggest

2:31 revenue spinners for 5g and the whole

2:34 gaming

2:34 ecosystem is expected to change from the

2:36 handheld games towards

2:38 cloud gaming that is delivered through

2:40 the edge using 5g

2:42 similarly ar vr here vr is approximately

2:45 20

2:46 of the total traffic inside the korea

2:49 network where they've launched 5g

2:50 and this is very exciting in terms of

2:52 the new technologies that

2:54 5g is enabling fwa is one of the

2:57 first applications that we will see on

2:59 the residential side for 5g

3:02 from a government perspective the focus

3:04 is going to be on energies and utilities

3:06 because

3:06 that's where a lot of the

3:08 transformations are expected to happen

3:10 and also in segments like smart cities

3:12 and automotive where there's going to be

3:13 a lot of public private partnership

3:15 in terms of how we deliver these

3:17 services while we don't know what that

3:19 killer application is going to be

3:21 we definitely know that 5g is going to

3:23 set that base on top of which

3:25 we will be able to you know first of all

3:27 launch these applications that we

3:29 already know but also be prepared for

3:30 those unknown applications that are

3:32 expected to come in the future

3:34 so with all of this said one of the

3:37 questions that again

3:38 comes up is that what is it about 5g

3:42 that makes it different

3:43 is it just about the speeds or is there

3:45 something more to it

3:47 so let's look at the two of the

3:49 components of 5g that

3:51 are critical to to create this

3:53 differentiation

3:54 for 5g and that helps it to enable all

3:56 of these different applications that we

3:58 spoke about

3:59 to really unlock its potential the first

4:01 of these is network slicing

4:03 traditionally we've offered networks

4:05 which are one size bit all

4:07 and they've not really been dedicated

4:09 for service differentiation inside the

4:12 you know for different kind of use cases

4:14 with network slicing we have the

4:16 opportunity

4:17 to build dedicated end-to-end virtual

4:19 networks with prescribed cl

4:21 slas for all the different services so

4:23 whether you have healthcare or

4:25 industrial automation or

4:26 a v2x application you can allocate

4:29 dedicated slices with prescribed slas

4:31 for those

4:32 which will offer the real

4:34 differentiation that is required for

4:36 these services

4:38 if you look at some of the studies that

4:40 have happened operators are looking at

4:42 network slicing as the one of the key

4:44 ways to monetize 5g

4:46 and this report from ericsson is kind of

4:49 a testament to that fact

4:50 what ericsson is predicting is that 34

4:54 of the revenue growth that these service

4:56 providers are going to have

4:57 till 2026 is going to come from

5:00 non-best effort slices so only once

5:02 service operators start to launch

5:04 network slices which are dedicated for

5:06 services that's when they will see this

5:08 uptake in revenue and 34 is a huge

5:11 potential for growth

5:12 for service providers the other key

5:14 technology that's going to be

5:15 a differentiator in 5g is open ramp

5:19 so we all know that one of the key

5:21 motivations for open brand is to reduce

5:24 the vendor lock-in that exists today

5:26 inside the land domain but one of the

5:28 other key things

5:29 that open ran the opportunity to launch

5:31 new services and monetization options

5:34 the adoption for oren is expected to

5:37 grow almost

5:38 10 fold in the next six years we've

5:40 already started to see some

5:41 initial deployments happen in operators

5:44 but currently a lot of the operators are

5:46 in trial phases to look at how open run

5:48 applies to their technologies

5:50 if you look at the use cases they

5:52 include traffic steering

5:53 brand slice optimization massive minor

5:56 rent sharing energy efficiency and a lot

5:58 of these different use cases

6:00 now another key component within open

6:03 ram

6:04 is that how do you monetize services

6:07 using openran openland is great because

6:09 it helps you

6:09 unlock innovation it helps you unlock

6:11 you know the vendor locking so that

6:12 newer players can come in

6:14 but how does it enable monetization so

6:17 for monetization to happen with openran

6:19 we need a rick a rand intelligent

6:22 controller

6:23 and this brand intelligent controller

6:25 basically provides the operators the

6:27 levers that they need

6:28 to be able to fine-tune the rand network

6:30 based on the requirements that they have

6:32 for the specific services

6:34 or the network types etc if you look at

6:37 some of the recent trials that have

6:38 happened vodafone for example

6:40 just concluded a trial where they used

6:42 the random housing controller to

6:44 increase their

6:45 sell side capacity by two times in one

6:48 of their massive minor

6:49 use cases similarly kddi last year

6:52 demonstrated how the rig

6:54 is going to become the control point for

6:56 them for network slicing within the rank

6:58 domain

7:00 so with that said let's now look at what

7:04 is the impact that these new

7:05 technologies are happening are having

7:07 on the service provider networks on the

7:09 operator networks and how we expect this

7:11 to evolve

7:14 so definitely with with all of these

7:16 changes that are happening there is a

7:17 shift in the architecture that's

7:19 happening in each of the domains inside

7:21 the operators

7:22 so including the ram the transport as

7:24 well as the core

7:25 if you look at the ram we spoke about

7:26 the open brand that is you know enabling

7:28 new interfaces to be formed

7:30 the cell side is becoming significantly

7:32 simpler because we're reducing some of

7:34 the active components on the cell side

7:35 and the components like the control unit

7:38 and the data unit are getting

7:39 distributed much deeper inside the

7:41 network

7:41 and this also has an impact on how the

7:44 networks get designed

7:45 uh front hall and for mid-hall in terms

7:48 of the requirements for the network in

7:49 terms of timing latency etc

7:52 and last but not the least as we said

7:54 for the rank a key portion

7:56 is how the architecture is going to

7:57 change to adopt the ram intelligent

7:59 controller so that you can have

8:01 enhanced intelligence inside the rank

8:04 from a transport perspective the focus

8:06 is all around reducing the protocol

8:08 layers to make the transport simpler

8:11 and to virtualize and disaggregate

8:13 wherever it makes sense

8:15 the last but not the least from a

8:17 transport perspective the key trend that

8:19 is that we're going to see is a shift

8:21 of the traffic and service delivery to

8:23 from

8:24 the edge or traditionally from the board

8:25 towards the metro and to the cloud

8:27 so the metro is going to become a

8:29 melting pot of where

8:30 all of this is going to come together in

8:32 terms of the integration to the cloud

8:34 the network slicing and all of those

8:35 different pieces

8:37 and last but not the least is the core

8:39 where the architecture is definitely

8:41 changing towards a more microservice

8:43 based

8:43 service based architecture and the

8:45 distribution of the core towards

8:47 into multiple points inside the network

8:49 using the distributed upi for the mac

8:53 so with that said in the rest of the

8:54 section we are going to focus

8:56 more around the rand and the transport

8:58 pieces and with that let's dive in a

9:00 little bit deeper

9:01 into what does it take to make all of

9:04 this happen end-to-end

9:07 so if you look at it this from a network

9:09 slicing orchestration perspective

9:10 because that we see

9:11 is going to be the key driver for the

9:14 architecture change as well as for how

9:16 services get delivered so let us look at

9:18 this from the perspective of network

9:20 slice orchestration

9:21 so at the highest level we see that just

9:23 below the oss and vss we have the always

9:25 orchestration layer

9:26 and that service orchestrator is then

9:28 talking to the specific domain

9:30 controllers in each of the domains

9:32 so the rand domain controller

9:33 orchestrator for the ram

9:35 the transport domain orchestrator for

9:36 the transport and similarly the

9:38 the core domain orchestrator for the

9:40 core now let's

9:41 peel the onion a little bit more to look

9:43 at how this looks like from a network

9:45 slicing perspective

9:48 so we can see here that the service

9:51 orchestrator

9:52 has a slice management function and then

9:54 that slice management function

9:56 is also translated into each of the

9:58 domains so each of the respective

10:00 domains have their slice subnet

10:02 management functions

10:03 plus they have something that's a

10:05 controller for that specific domain so

10:07 for example in the in the rand domain

10:10 you can see that's the non-real-time

10:11 rate

10:12 in the transport domain that's the van

10:13 sdm controller and then in the core

10:15 domain we will have the nfv over there

10:17 so

10:18 each of these domains are going to be

10:20 responsible for

10:21 the orchestration and for the slice

10:23 management within their own domains

10:25 and they will be talking to the service

10:27 orchestrator that is responsible for

10:28 stitching all of this

10:29 end to end so let's now delve a little

10:33 more deeper into the rand domain

10:34 and then from there on we'll move on

10:36 towards the transport

10:39 so as you can see the rank domain if we

10:42 blow this

10:42 out we see that it has a few key

10:45 components the first is the service

10:46 management

10:47 and orchestration which is the smo and

10:49 the smo has a few components like the

10:51 management and orchestration

10:52 the oam the ram uh slice management as

10:56 well as the non-real-time grid

10:58 and then we have the oh cloud which is

11:00 the layer that

11:01 provides the containerization and

11:03 virtualization for all the applications

11:05 that are going to sit on top

11:07 so let's now look at how all of this

11:09 comes into play and

11:10 and how this whole slicing orchestration

11:12 works from a random perspective

11:15 so the first thing is from the

11:16 management and orchestration perspective

11:18 we talk to the old cloud

11:19 and the o cloud brings up the respective

11:22 control plane or the user plane

11:23 functions like the

11:24 po control plane as well as the near

11:26 real-time brick

11:28 now as you can see the rig has two

11:29 components the non-real-time rig that is

11:31 under the smo

11:33 and the new real-time brick that is

11:34 sitting next to the cu control plane

11:36 and each of them have their own set of

11:38 apps so we will discuss this in a little

11:40 more detail in the next slide

11:42 but the key thing is that the management

11:43 and orchestration informs the o cloud to

11:45 bring up the control plane as well as

11:47 the

11:47 near real-time break in the next phase

11:50 the operation operations and maintenance

11:52 talks to these components to make sure

11:54 they have been

11:54 they've been brought up appropriately

11:56 based on the requirements

11:58 and then collectively with the rand

12:00 slice management

12:01 the the user plane is set up based on

12:05 the different network devices so this

12:07 includes the

12:09 cu user plane as well as the the du

12:12 functions

12:12 now as you can see these functions can

12:14 be distributed into multiple

12:16 clouds regional cloud edge cloud cell

12:18 site and this would depend upon the type

12:20 of deployment

12:20 that operators have but overall the

12:23 model is flexible

12:24 enough to support these kind of

12:25 deployments now once we've done this

12:28 we need to tie this back to the

12:30 transport domain

12:31 and how does these slices translate into

12:34 what's happening in the transport domain

12:36 so for that purpose the ranked domain

12:38 orchestrator or this smo

12:40 talks to the transport domain

12:41 orchestrator to orchestrate the

12:43 respective

12:44 tunnels that are required in the

12:45 transport to make all of this

12:47 these slices happen and aditya will talk

12:49 more about how

12:51 each of these tunnels come into play how

12:53 are they formed and then how do

12:55 they talk they help these clouds to talk

12:57 to each other with the clouds between

12:59 the cell side and the edge cloud the

13:00 edge cloud and the regional cloud

13:03 so let's look at it a bit deeper into

13:06 the

13:06 this non-real-time break and the near

13:08 real-time break

13:11 the non-real-time break as we mentioned

13:13 it resides inside the smo

13:15 and it has yeah it hosts the r apps so

13:17 the job of the non-real-time break

13:19 is to provide policy-based guidance it

13:22 tells the near real-time

13:24 rick what it needs to do and the near

13:27 real-time break

13:28 sits very close to the edge cloud it

13:30 resides inside the edge cloud very close

13:32 to

13:32 the cu control planes and it hosts the x

13:35 apps

13:35 and this is where the what gets

13:37 translated into the how

13:39 so the near real-time rig talks to the

13:41 ceos and the dus and translates the

13:42 policy guidance that it receives

13:44 from the non-real-time break into the

13:47 actual commands to the

13:48 cu and to do you to make the actual

13:50 functions happen

13:52 so in the end when we want to realize

13:54 the use cases for the

13:56 rand which includes the slice

13:58 orchestration or

13:59 the massive mimo or the other use cases

14:02 uh like rank sharing

14:03 then this is the non-real-time break in

14:05 the near real time will have a

14:07 very important role to play to make this

14:10 happen

14:10 and the key thing here is that both of

14:12 these support the hosting of

14:14 third-party apps the rx and the x apps

14:17 which is where the most most of the

14:18 innovation is expected to happen

14:20 so from a juniper perspective juniper

14:22 has acquired a company called nexia

14:24 and we will be building both this

14:26 non-real-time as well as the near time

14:29 non-real time in the near real-time rate

14:31 as well as the smo functions

14:33 so that is how juniper is contributing

14:35 from an orion perspective

14:37 in this domain so now we've discussed

14:41 how things look like from a rand

14:43 perspective aditya

14:45 so what how do you think this translates

14:47 in terms of requirements

14:49 for the transport domain so is the

14:52 transport domain

14:53 the way we have it today is that good

14:55 enough or does that require

14:57 some kind of a change yeah thanks

15:00 so let's start with the base ib

15:02 transport infrastructure

15:04 there is a significant shift required in

15:06 terms of the transport

15:08 architecture to address the 5g

15:10 requirements

15:11 and so what are those requirements first

15:14 5g services and cell densification now

15:17 this brings a massive

15:19 bandwidth and scale increase majorly in

15:21 the metro

15:22 or xor networks this also brings

15:26 a massive explosion of end user id

15:29 devices

15:30 whether we have these devices as

15:32 enterprise cps

15:33 iot devices or consumers having said

15:36 that

15:36 timing has become much more stricter

15:39 with 5g

15:40 and low latency is now a key requirement

15:43 another requirement which we see for

15:46 this architecture shift

15:47 is around service differentiation and

15:50 application way routing now this is a

15:52 basic requirement when we talk about

15:54 network slicing

15:56 meanwhile we also see a need for

15:58 centralized

15:59 automation control and distributed

16:01 performance

16:02 which requires a hybrid architecture

16:05 how do we address these requirements we

16:07 need an architecture which is scalable

16:10 stateless and most important it should

16:12 be simple to operate

16:14 having said that segment routing if you

16:16 see segment routing is a foundation

16:18 for the ip transport architecture it's a

16:21 key enabler

16:22 that can reduce our protocol stack by up

16:25 to 70

16:26 which reduces the state and the scale

16:29 requirements

16:31 it is also inherently programmable which

16:34 kind of provides a centralized

16:36 automation control

16:38 now within segment routing there are two

16:40 approaches with similar benefits

16:42 to achieve the end objectives of 5g sr

16:46 mpls which is segment routing for mpls

16:49 now this is best

16:50 suited for existing mpls networks

16:53 as it brings the least disruption and

16:55 also mitigates risk

16:57 during migration to sr or the evolution

17:00 to sr

17:01 now within sr and pls we also have tools

17:04 to integrate with nodes and networks

17:08 which may not be capable enough to

17:09 deliver sr day 0

17:11 or which would require a certain

17:14 software upgrade

17:15 to deliver sr now the other flavor

17:19 of segment routing which we call as srv6

17:22 which essentially is

17:23 segment routing for ipv6 this is best

17:26 suited

17:27 for green field networks as it brings

17:30 the massive

17:31 scale of ipv6 and also

17:34 interesting capability to embed

17:38 the intent within the packet now from

17:41 services evolution perspective we see a

17:44 shift

17:45 more towards evpn which provides a

17:48 unified

17:49 services architecture for both layer

17:52 free

17:53 and later vpns while being transport

17:55 agnostic

17:56 which means it can run over plane ip any

17:59 flavor of mpls

18:01 or srv6 so this is

18:04 the basic ip transport infrastructure

18:07 requirements which we see

18:09 happening with the advent of 5g next

18:12 slide

18:13 nithin all right

18:16 so what are the key end-to-end network

18:18 slicing requirements

18:19 so within the ip transport world we have

18:22 been traditionally

18:23 delivering network slices as in layer 3

18:26 vpns or layer 2 vpns

18:28 however with 5g we see new requirements

18:31 which require networks to error to

18:32 stringent slas and

18:34 also very important a need to map

18:37 similar intent

18:38 within individual domains like ram metro

18:41 core

18:42 so these are essentially uh holistic

18:45 requirements

18:46 but what about the key network slicing

18:48 requirements first and foremost

18:50 traffic isolation now we need to

18:52 maintain traffic separation for

18:54 different slices

18:55 or customers and also a mechanism to

18:58 provide

18:58 security and segmentation another

19:01 requirement key requirement is topology

19:03 aware slice

19:04 now what do we mean by topology where

19:07 slice it essentially needs a slice

19:09 for example a load latency slice which

19:12 requires

19:12 a latency part between the consumer and

19:16 the application

19:17 and not necessarily the shortest path to

19:20 reach a destination as defined by igp

19:22 which essentially might not be the

19:24 lowest latency path

19:26 and one of the most important aspects or

19:28 requirement from network slicing

19:30 perspective

19:31 is the end-to-end orchestration

19:32 mechanism now this is the key

19:35 to maintain the intent which resonates

19:37 with consistent intent

19:39 within each domain this also unifies

19:42 the mechanism to deliver or provision

19:45 the intent

19:46 across different domains like the ram

19:48 the metro

19:49 the core and finally assurance

19:52 and guaranteed availability of network

19:56 resources

19:57 now this is a key aspect which is

19:59 requested by the slides

20:01 so these are essentially the key

20:04 end-to-end network slicing requirements

20:06 this is a public demonstration of

20:08 juniper

20:09 slicing solution and there is a url url

20:12 there

20:13 this provides you a view of how to

20:15 create and maintain

20:17 transport network slices using juniper's

20:21 nostril controller which essentially is

20:24 one of the most important aspects when

20:26 we talk about

20:27 automation and centralized control

20:30 you could visit the website for the demo

20:32 and the technical details

20:34 so now we have covered from a transport

20:37 aspect of the 5g and also the

20:39 requirements in terms of the network

20:41 slicing perspective

20:42 so nathan what's your view on the

20:44 end-to-end

20:45 slicing mechanism and how do we stitch

20:48 these

20:48 domains essentially yeah thanks aditya

20:51 so as we discussed we've looked at how

20:54 the ram

20:55 and the rig inside the ram is going to

20:56 take the responsibility of doing the

20:58 slices inside the network

21:00 inside the rand domain we've looked at

21:01 how the transport is going to look at

21:03 taking those that intent and translating

21:05 that into controller

21:07 requirements from a transport

21:08 perspective the key here

21:10 is that how do we stage all of these

21:12 together firstly from a multi-domain

21:14 perspective so that the intent

21:16 is from the rank or the transport of the

21:17 core we can ensure that that intent

21:19 is delivered seamlessly across the

21:21 entire network

21:23 and so that is the first component which

21:24 is where the service orchestration piece

21:26 comes in

21:26 but the other thing is that we also in

21:29 addition to being multi-tenant we also

21:31 want this to be

21:32 multi-domain we also want it to be

21:33 multi-tenant and multi-cloud so what

21:35 that means is

21:37 that in terms of offering these services

21:39 this could also be offered as a

21:41 tenant-based service wherein an

21:43 enterprise or an mvno might buy

21:45 a slice or a hierarchy of slices within

21:48 an operator network and they may want to

21:50 run it like that so you want

21:51 to be able to create network slicing not

21:53 just for your own operator requirements

21:55 but to be able to create it for hosting

21:58 other operators or other

21:59 enterprise services on top of that as

22:01 well the other thing is that we also

22:04 need to be

22:05 able to extend this not just into

22:06 distributed clouds within the operator

22:08 network

22:09 but also into the public cloud because

22:11 we expect that a lot of these services

22:13 that are not

22:13 latency sensitive will eventually move

22:16 to the public cloud and be hosted out of

22:17 there

22:18 so we need to be able to ensure that we

22:19 can do all of this stuff and do it

22:21 at scale so that is kind of like the

22:23 high level message

22:25 so with that let's wrap this up with the

22:27 three key messages that we discussed for

22:29 today

22:29 on how the architecture for for the

22:32 operator networks is changing because of

22:34 5g

22:35 and there are three key architecture

22:36 shifts that we're seeing the first one

22:38 is open rank which is uh making the

22:42 network simpler from a sell side

22:43 perspective uh it is making the rank

22:45 more intelligent by using things like

22:47 the brand intelligent controller

22:49 the second piece is the transport where

22:51 we are significantly simplifying

22:53 transport by reducing six

22:54 up to 70 percent of the overheads we are

22:56 making it more application aware and we

22:58 are

22:59 tightly integrating this with the ram

23:02 and the core domains to make this

23:03 an end-to-end solution and last but not

23:06 the least is network slicing

23:08 which has to be multi-domain

23:09 multi-tenant and has to be executed at

23:12 scale

23:13 with that we thank you for your time and

23:16 we hope

23:17 you found this session useful and we'll

23:19 probably see you in the next one

23:20 thank you thank you very much

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