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A

access policy, examples    1
DHCP    
SRC CLI
PPP    
SRC CLI
action threshold, service schedules    
overview
setting    
SRC CLI
actions.     See policy actions    
aggregate services    1
adding    
SRC CLI
before you configure    
SRC CLI
fragment services
infrastructure services
mandatory services
Python expressions
redundancy
sessions    1
activation
attributes
deactivation
modification
monitoring
timers, configuring    
SRC CLI
apply-groups statement, routers running Junos OS
 

C

captive portal    
using with next-hop action    
SRC CLI
classify-traffic condition    1
application protocol    
defining, SRC CLI
map expressions, SRC CLI
application, setting    
SRC CLI
application-group, setting    
SRC CLI
configuring    
SRC CLI
destination grouped network, configuring    
SRC CLI
destination network, configuring    
SRC CLI
expanded classifiers    1
configuring, SRC CLI
extended classifiers    1
configuring, SRC CLI
ICMP conditions, setting    
SRC CLI
IGMP conditions, setting    
SRC CLI
IPSec conditions, setting    
SRC CLI
Junos OS filter conditions, setting    
SRC CLI
JunosE secondary input policy conditions, setting    
SRC CLI
match direction, setting    
SRC CLI    12
multiple classifiers
packet length, setting    
SRC CLI
PCMM I02 and I03    1
configuring, SRC CLI
port definitions, overview    
SRC CLI
protocol conditions with parameters, setting    
SRC CLI
protocol conditions with ports, setting    
SRC CLI
protocol conditions, setting    
SRC CLI
route class, configuring    
SRC CLI
source grouped network, configuring    
SRC CLI
source network, setting    
SRC CLI
TCP conditions, setting    
SRC CLI
term-precedence, setting    
SRC CLI
ToS byte conditions, setting    
SRC CLI
color actions    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
color mark actions    12
controlled load service, FlowSpec
conventions    
notice icons
text
CoS (class of service)    
ToS byte, setting    
SRC CLI
customer support    1
contacting JTAC
 

D

Data-over-Cable Service Interface Specifications.     See DOCSIS    
default policies    
example    
SRC CLI
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)    
access policy example    
SRC CLI
Differentiated Services code point, ToS byte    
SRC CLI
DOCSIS policy actions    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
documentation    
comments on
drop profile maps    
configuring    
SRC CLI
drop probability, setting    
SRC CLI
fill level, setting    
SRC CLI
DSCP (Differentiated Services code point), ToS byte    
SRC CLI
 

E

effective period, service schedules
exclusions to service schedule    1
defining    
SRC CLI
expanded classifiers    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
expressions    
map, application protocol conditions    
SRC CLI
parameter definitions
extended classifiers, PCMM    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
external parent groups    
JunosE    
overview    12
external parent groups,    
aggregate rate-limit    
configuring
configuration statements
for JunosE policies    
configuration statements
configuring
hierarchical policy parameter    
configuring
JunosE    
creating
rate-limit profiles    
configuring
 

F

filter actions    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
FlowSpec actions    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
forward actions    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
forwarding class actions    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
fragment services    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
 

G

gates, PCMM
gateSpec actions    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
global parameters    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
predefined    1
viewing with SRC CLI
runtime
types
guaranteed service, FlowSpec
 

H

hierarchical policies    
overview    
1
hierarchical rate-limiting    
JunosE    
1
 

I

infrastructure services    123
 

J

Junos OS ASP policy rules    1
NAT actions    1
configuring, SRC CLI
network, specifying    1
SRC CLI    12
stateful firewall actions, configuring    
SRC CLI
Junos OS filter policy rules    1
conditions, setting    
SRC CLI
Junos OS policer policy rules    1
policer actions    1
configuring, SRC CLI
Junos OS port mirror policy rules    
traffic mirror actions
Junos OS scheduler policy rules    12,  See also drop profile maps    
actions    1
configuring, SRC CLI
QoS conditions, configuring    
SRC CLI
Junos OS shaping policy rules
JunosE IPv6 policy rules    
network, specifying    
SRC CLI    12
JunosE secondary input policy rules    
conditions, setting    
SRC CLI
 

L

local parameters    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
types
loss priority actions    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
 

M

manuals    
comments on
map expressions    
application protocol conditions    
SRC CLI
substitutions
mark actions    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
multiple classifiers, policies
multitask
mutex group    1
adding    
SRC CLI
 

N

NAT (Network Address Translation) policies    
actions    1
configuring, SRC CLI
application protocol condition    
defining, SRC CLI
map expressions, SRC CLI
next-hop actions    1
captive portal feature    
SRC CLI
configuring    
SRC CLI
next-interface actions    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
next-rule actions    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
non-real-time polling service.
notice icons
NRTPS (non-real-time polling service)
 

O

operators in substitution expressions
 

P

packet loss priority.     See loss priority actions    
PacketCable Multimedia Specifications.     See PCMM    
parameter names    
substitutions
parameter value acquisition    12,  See also substitutions    
example
multiple subscriptions
single subscriptions
parameter values, setting in services
parameters    1,  See also substitutions    
defining
definition
fixing
global.     See global parameters    
local.     See local parameters    
ranking sources
runtime.     See runtime parameters    
types
parent groups    12345
PCMM policies    
classifiers
client type 1 support
conditions and actions supported
DOCSIS parameters    1
configuring, SRC CLI
extended classifiers    1
configuring, SRC CLI
FlowSpec parameters    
configuring, SRC CLI
controlled load service
guaranteed service
request specification (RSpec)
traffic specification (TSpec)
gate
gateSpec parameters, configuring    
SRC CLI
I02 and I03 classifiers
marking packets
proxied QoS with policy push
service class name    
configuring, SRC CLI
service flow scheduling types
SessionClassId
traffic profiles
permanent service    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
plug-ins    
authorization
policer actions    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
policies    
defining parameters in repository
policing policies    
example    
SRC CLI
policy actions    1
color    1
configuring, SRC CLI
color mark    12
combining
configuring
DOCSIS    1
configuring, SRC CLI
dynamic profiles    
configuring, SRC CLI
filter    1
configuring, SRC CLI
FlowSpec    1
configuring, SRC CLI
forward    1
configuring, SRC CLI
forwarding class    1
configuring, SRC CLI
gateSpec    1
configuring, SRC CLI
loss priority    1
configuring, SRC CLI
mark    1
configuring, SRC CLI
NAT    1
configuring, SRC CLI
next hop    1
configuring, SRC CLI
next interface    1
configuring, SRC CLI
next rule    1
configuring, SRC CLI
policer    1
configuring, SRC CLI
policy rules supported
QoS profile attachment    1
configuring, SRC CLI
rate limit    1
configuring, SRC CLI
rate limit hierarchy    
overview
parent-group reference, SRC CLI
rate limit types    
configuring, SRC CLI
rate-limit hierarchy    
configuring, SRC CLI    12
reject    1
configuring, SRC CLI
routing instance    1
configuring, SRC CLI
scheduler    1
configuring, SRC CLI
service class name    1
configuring, SRC CLI
stateful firewall    1
configuring, SRC CLI
template activation    
configuring, SRC CLI
traffic class    1
configuring, SRC CLI
traffic mirror    1
configuring, SRC CLI
traffic-shape    1
configuring, SRC CLI
types
user packet class    1
configuring, SRC CLI
policy components    1
policy decision point, description
Policy Editor
policy enforcement point, description
policy engine
policy repository
policy conditions    12,  See also classify-traffic condition    
policy rules supported
types
policy engine
policy examples    
access policy    
SRC CLI
premium service    
SRC CLI
tiered Internet service    
SRC CLI
policy folders    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
policy groups    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
policy lists    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
policy management    
bandwidth management
overview
packet logging
packet mirroring
packet tagging
policy routing
QoS classification and marking
RADIUS support
security
policy objects    
organization
policy overview    
actions.     See policy actions    
conditions.     See classify-traffic condition\    
policy object organization
policy repository, description
policy rules    1
actions supported
conditions supported
configuring    
SRC CLI
Junos Adaptive Services PIC (ASP).     See Junos OS ASP policy rules    
Junos OS filter.     See Junos OS filter policy rules    
Junos OS policer.     See Junos OS policer policy rules    
Junos OS scheduler.     See Junos OS scheduler policy rules    
Junos OS shaping.     See Junos OS shaping policy rules    
precedence    
SRC CLI
types
PPP    
access policy example    
SRC CLI
precedence    
policy rules    
SRC CLI
premium service, example    
SRC CLI
preparation time, service schedules    
overview
setting    
SRC CLI
proxied QoS with policy push
 

Q

QoS (quality of service)    
condition    1
configuring, SRC CLI
PCMM cable networks.     See PCMM policies    
QoS parameters, configuring    
SRC CLI
QoS profile attachment actions    1
configuring, SRC CLI
QoS profile, configuring    
SRC CLI
QoS condition    12
 

R

rate-limit actions    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
example    
SRC CLI
rate-limit hierarchy actions    
configuring    
SRC CLI    12
overview
rate-limit type actions    
configuring    
SRC CLI
rate-limiting, with multiple classifiers
real-time polling service.     See RTPS    
reject actions    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
routers running Junos OS    
policy features    
rate-shaping
routing instance actions    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
RTPS (real-time polling service)    1
configuring    1
SRC CLI
runtime parameters    
viewing with SRC CLI
 

S

scheduleAuth plug-in
scheduler actions    12,  See also drop profile maps    
configuring    
SRC CLI
scopes.     See service scopes    
script services    1
adding    
SRC CLI
example    
ScriptService SPI in Java
ScriptService SPI in Jython
ScriptService interface
service    
3gpp attributes (Gx router driver)    
configuring, SRC CLI
Gx service attributes    
configuring, SRC CLI
service class name actions    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
service flow scheduling types
service schedules    
action threshold, setting    
SRC CLI
authorization schedules, configuring    
SRC CLI
configuring    
SRC CLI
examples    
SRC CLI    1234
exclusions, defining    
SRC CLI
guidelines
overview    1
action threshold
authorization schedules
configuring
effective period
event-based schedules
exclusions
one-time events
preparation time
recurring events
state-based schedules
planning
preparation time, setting    
SRC CLI
weekly-recur-freq
service scopes    12
adding    
SRC CLI
assigning services    
SRC CLI
assigning subscribers    
SRC CLI
assigning VRs    
SRC CLI
configuring    
SRC CLI
example    
SRC CLI
multiple scopes, defining    
SCR CLI
service-mgm-schedules-nonwork
services    
activate-only
adding aggregate    
SRC CLI
adding infrastructure    
SRC CLI
adding normal    
SRC CLI
adding script services    
SRC CLI
aggregate.     See aggregate services    
assigning to service scopes    
SRC CLI
automatic activation
infrastructure.     See infrastructure services    
mutually exclusive
overview
premium service example    
SRC CLI
restricting availability
restricting simultaneous activation
script.     See script services    
setting parameter values
tiered Internet example    
SRC CLI
SessionClassId, PCMM policies
shaping rate.     See traffic shaping    
stateful firewall policies    
actions    1
configuring, SRC CLI
application protocol conditions    
defining, SRC CLI
map expressions, SRC CLI
substitutions    1,  See also parameters    
aggregate services, configuring
comments    1
adding
definition
exceptions, raising
expressions    12
IPv4 addresses
keywords
lists, formatting
maps, formatting
numbers, formatting
operators
parameter names, specifying
ranges
separators
strings, formatting
subordinate expressions
syntax
formatting
map expressions
mathematical expressions
parameter names
validation
support, technical     See technical support    
 

T

technical support    
contacting JTAC
template activation actions    
configuring    
SRC CLI
text conventions defined
tiered Internet service, example    
SRC CLI
traffic mirror actions    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
traffic profiles, PCMM policies
traffic shape actions    
configuring    
SRC CLI
traffic shaping    
actions
policy rules
traffic-class actions    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
traffic-shape actions
 

U

UGS (unsolicited grant service)    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
UGS-AD (unsolicited grant service with activity detection)    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
unsolicited grant service.     See UGS    
unsolicited grant with activity detection.     See UGS-AD    
user packet class actions    1
configuring    
SRC CLI
 

V

validating    
substitutions
value acquisition for parameters    
multiple subscriptions
single subscriptions

Delivering QoS Services in a Cable Environment

This topic describes how SRC policies provide quality of service in the cable network environment.

Service Flow Scheduling Types

The DOCSIS protocol is used to support quality of service for traffic between the cable modem and the CMTS device. To support QoS, the DOCSIS protocol uses the concept of service flows for traffic that is transmitted between cable modems and CMTS devices. A service flow is a unidirectional flow of packets that provides a particular quality of service. Traffic is classified into a service flow, and each service flow has its own set of QoS parameters. Table 8 describes the service flow scheduling types and the QoS parameters that you can set for each type.

The SRC software is compliant with the service flow scheduling types as defined in the PacketCable Multimedia Specification PKT-SP-MM-I03-051221. See the specification for detailed information about each scheduling type.

Table 8: DOCSIS Service Flow Scheduling Types

Type

Description

Suitable Traffic Type(s)

QoS Parameters

Best effort

For upstream service flows.

The CMTS scheduler grants transmit opportunities on a first-come first-served basis. You can supplement best effort with QoS parameters.

Standard Internet traffic such as Web browsing, e-mail, or instant messaging

Traffic priority

Request transmission policy

Maximum sustained traffic rate

Maximum traffic burst

Minimum reserved traffic rate

Assumed minimum reserved-traffic-rate packet size

Non-real-time polling service (NRTPS)

For upstream service flows.

The CMTS scheduler sends unicast polls to cable modems on a fixed interval to determine whether data is queued for transmission on a particular service flow. If data is queued, the scheduler provides a transmission grant for the service flow.

Standard Internet traffic that requires high throughput, and traffic that requires variable-sized data grants on a regular basis, such as high-bandwidth FTP.

Traffic priority

Request transmission policy

Maximum sustained traffic rate

Maximum traffic burst

Minimum reserved traffic rate

Assumed minimum reserved-traffic-rate packet size

Nominal polling interval

Real-time polling service (RTPS)

For upstream service flows.

Analogous to NRTPS, except that the fixed polling interval is typically very short.

Offers request opportunities that meet the service flows’ real-time needs and allows the cable modem to specify the size of the desired grant.

Real-time traffic that generates variable-sized data packets on a periodic basis and has inflexible latency and throughput requirements.

Applications include Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG) video.

Request transmission policy

Maximum sustained traffic rate

Maximum traffic burst

Minimum reserved traffic rate

Assumed minimum reserved-traffic-rate packet size

Nominal polling interval

Tolerated poll jitter

Unsolicited grant service (UGS)

For upstream service flows.

The CMTS device provides a fixed-size grant to a service flow at fixed intervals without additional polling or interaction. UGS eliminates much of the overhead associated with the polling flow types.

Real-time traffic that generates fixed-size data packets on a periodic basis.

Applications include voice over IP (VoIP)

Request transmission policy

Unsolicited grant size

Grants per interval

Nominal grant interval

Tolerated grant jitter

Unsolicited grant service with activity detection (UGS-AD)

For upstream service flows.

A hybrid of the UGS and RTPS scheduling types.

  • When there is activity, the CMTS device sends unsolicited fixed grants at fixed intervals to the cable modem.
  • When there is no activity, the CMTS device sends unicast poll requests to the cable modem to conserve unused bandwidth.

Applications include voice activity detection, also known as silence suppression

Request transmission policy

Nominal polling interval

Tolerated poll jitter

Unsolicited grant size

Grants per interval

Nominal grant interval

Tolerated grant jitter

Downstream

For downstream service flows.

Downstream service flows are defined through a similar set of QoS parameters that are associated with the best-effort scheduling type on upstream service flows.

All downstream traffic

Traffic priority

Maximum sustained traffic rate

Maximum traffic burst

Minimum reserved traffic rate

Assumed minimum reserved-traffic-rate packet size

Maximum latency

Client Type 1 Support

The PCMM specification defines three types of clients, and defines a client as a logical entity that can send or receive data. The SRC software supports client type 1, which represents endpoints such as PC applications or gaming consoles that lack specific QoS awareness or signaling capabilities. Client type 1 entities communicate with an application manager to request service, and the CMTS device manages the QoS signaling.

Client type 1 entities support the proxied QoS with policy push scenario of service delivery defined in the PacketCable Multimedia Architecture Framework Technical Report (PKT-TR-MM-ARCH). In this scenario, the application manager requests QoS resources on behalf of the client, and the policy server pushes the request to the CMTS device. The CMTS device sets up and manages the DOCSIS service flow that the application requires.

Proxied QoS with Policy Push

In the proxied QoS with policy push scenario of service delivery, the client requests a service by sending a service request to the application manager. The application manager determines the QoS needs of the request and sends a policy request to the policy server. The policy server validates the policy request and if, the decision is affirmative, sends a policy set message to the CMTS device. The CMTS device performs admission control on the requested QoS envelope, installs the policy decision, and establishes the service flow to the client with the requested QoS levels.

Figure 16: Authorization Framework for Proxied QoS with Policy Push

Authorization Framework for Proxied QoS with Policy
Push

PCMM Gate

A PCMM gate is a logical representation of a policy decision that has been installed on the CMTS device. The gate performs traffic classification and enforces QoS policies on media streams.

The set of service flow characteristics that provide enhanced QoS is the envelope. A CMTS gate contains up to three envelopes that indicate authorized, reserved, and committed resources for the service flow that corresponds to the gate. A gate defines a resource authorization envelope that consists of IP-level QoS parameters as well as classifiers that define the scope of service flows that can be established against the gate.

Three elements of a gate discussed here are session class ID, classifiers, and traffic profiles.

Session Class ID

The session class ID provides a way for the application manager and the policy server to group gates into classes with different authorization characteristics. A CMTS device can perform authorization based not only on the requested QoS and the gate’s authorized flow specification (FlowSpec), but also on the session class ID specified in the GateSpec. For example, you could use the session class ID to represent a prioritization scheme that allows either the policy server or the CMTS device to preempt a preauthorized gate in favor of allowing a new gate with a higher priority to be authorized.

Use the GateSpec action to specify the session class ID for a gate.

PCMM Classifiers

The classifier identifies the IP flow that will be mapped to the DOCSIS service flow associated with the gate. You define the classifier by using a classify-traffic condition.

PCMM Classifiers and Extended Classifiers

Classify-traffic conditions comply with the classifiers specified in PacketCable Multimedia Specification PKT-SP-MM-I02-040930 (referred to as PCMM I02) as well as the extended classifiers in PacketCable Multimedia Specification PKT-SP-MM-I03-051221 (referred to as PCMM I03).

To specify which version of the PCMM classifiers that you are using, see one of the following:

PCMM I02 classifiers do not support IP masks or a range of port numbers. PCMM I03 classifiers do support IP masks and a range of port numbers.

You define classifiers for PCMM irrespective of whether the policy is meant for I02 or I03. At service activation time, depending on whether the SAE is configured to use I02 or I03 policies, the policy engine does the appropriate translations. For example, if I02 policies are to be used, source and destination IP masks and ranges of port numbers are ignored.

You can configure all fields for extended PCMM classifiers (PCMM I03), except for classifierID, activation state, and action. At service activation, the policy engine sets these fields as follows:

  • ClassifierID=A system-generated number
  • Activation state=Active
  • Action=Add

Guidelines for Configuring Classifiers

When you configure classify-traffic conditions for PCMM policies, keep in mind the following:

  • Do not leave the IP address field empty.
  • For PCMM classify-traffic conditions, there are two special protocol values:
    • 256 matches traffic that has any IP protocol value
    • 257 matches both TCP and UDP traffic
  • PCMM I02 classifiers do not support IP masks or a range of port numbers.
  • PCMM I03 classifiers to support IP masks and a range of port numbers.

Traffic Profiles

There are three ways to express the traffic profile for a gate:

  • DOCSIS parameters—Specifies the traffic profile through DOCSIS-specific parameters.
  • Service class name—Name of a service class that is configured on the CMTS device.
  • FlowSpec—Defines the traffic profile through an RSVP-like parameterization scheme.

You can also mark the ToS byte of a packet as it gets to the gate.

DOCSIS Parameters

You use DOCSIS parameters in a network that uses version 1.1 of the DOCSIS protocol. To define DOCSIS parameters for a traffic profile, use the DOCSIS action. This action supports service flow scheduling types and QoS parameters described in this topic. See one of the following:

Service Class Name

To use a service class name for a traffic profile, use the service class name action. Instead of setting QoS parameters, you specify the name of a service class that is configured on the CMTS device. See one of the following:

FlowSpec Parameters

You can use an RSVP-style FlowSpec to specify a traffic profile. A FlowSpec is made up of two parts, a traffic specification (TSpec) and a service request specification (RSpec). The TSpec describes the traffic requirements for the flow, and the RSpec specifies resource requirements for the desired service.

TSpec parameters defined in the FlowSpec are:

  • Bucket rate
  • Bucket depth
  • Peak rate
  • Minimum policed unit
  • Maximum packet size

RSpec parameters defined in the FlowSpec are:

  • Reserved rate
  • Slack term

Types of FlowSpec Services

FlowSpecs support two types of services—controlled load and guaranteed.

  • Controlled-load service can be used to provide minimum bandwidth guarantees, and is suitable for applications that are not latency sensitive. Controlled-load service allows applications to have low delay and high throughput even during times of congestion. Controlled-load service can be closely approximated to the best-effort service flow scheduling type. Controlled-load services support TSpec parameters only.
  • Guaranteed service allows applications to reserve bandwidth, and is suitable for latency and jitter-sensitive applications such as voice, MPEG video, or gaming. The CMTS device uses the traffic profile parameters specified in the FlowSpec to select one of the two types of DOCSIS scheduling types that can provide guaranteed services—RTPS and UGS. Guaranteed services support both TSpec and RSpec parameters.

Table 9 shows how the FlowSpec service types map to the DOCSIS service scheduling types.

Table 9: Mapping FlowSpec Types

FlowSpec Service Type

DOCSIS Scheduling Type

Application Example

Guaranteed

Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS)

Voice over IP

Guaranteed

Real-Time Polling Service (RTPS)

Guaranteed VPN

Controlled load

Best effort

Standard Internet service

FlowSpec Parameters

Table 10 shows the parameters that you can set for each service type.

Table 10: Parameters Available for Each Type of Service

Controlled Load

Guaranteed Service

Token bucket rate

Token bucket size

Peak data rate

Minimum policed unit

Maximum packet size

Token bucket rate

Token bucket size

Peak data rate

Minimum policed unit

Maximum packet size

Rate

Slack term

Marking Packets

You can also mark packets and then install policies on the router that handle the marked packets in a certain way. The mark action causes the ToS byte to be set in the IP header of IPv4 traffic or the traffic-class field to be set in the IP header of IPv6 traffic. For example, to offer videoconferencing, you could:

  1. Create a classify-traffic condition that causes the CMTS device to classify the traffic.
  2. Create a mark action that causes the CMTS device to mark the ToS byte or traffic-class field in the classified traffic.
  3. Create a policy on the router that classifies the traffic according to the marked ToS byte.

Related Documentation

Modified: 2016-05-26