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    Ethernet Frame Delay Measurements Overview

    ITU-T Y.1731 Frame Delay Measurement Feature

    The IEEE 802.3-2005 standard for Ethernet Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) defines a set of link fault management mechanisms to detect and report link faults on a single point-to-point Ethernet LAN.

    Junos OS supports key OAM standards that provide for automated end-to-end management and monitoring of Ethernet service by service providers:

    • IEEE Standard 802.1ag, also known as “Connectivity Fault Management (CFM).”
    • ITU-T Recommendation Y.1731, which uses different terminology than IEEE 802.1ag and defines Ethernet service OAM features for fault monitoring, diagnostics, and performance monitoring.

    These capabilities allow operators to offer binding service-level agreements (SLAs) and generate new revenues from rate- and performance-guaranteed service packages that are tailored to the specific needs of their customers.

    Ethernet CFM

    The IEEE 802.1ag standard for connectivity fault management (CFM) defines mechanisms to provide for end-to-end Ethernet service assurance over any path, whether a single link or multiple links spanning networks composed of multiple LANs.

    For Ethernet interfaces on M320, MX Series, and T Series routers, Junos OS supports the following key elements of the Ethernet CFM standard:

    • Fault monitoring using the IEEE 802.1ag Ethernet OAM Continuity Check protocol
    • Path discovery and fault verification using the IEEE 802.1ag Ethernet OAM Linktrace protocol
    • Fault isolation using the IEEE 802.1ag Ethernet OAM Loopback protocol

    In a CFM environment, network entities such as network operators, service providers, and customers may be part of different administrative domains. Each administrative domain is mapped into one maintenance domain. Maintenance domains are configured with different level values to keep them separate. Each domain provides enough information for the entities to perform their own management and end-to-end monitoring, and still avoid security breaches.

    Figure 1 shows the relationships among the customer, provider, and operator Ethernet bridges, maintenance domains, maintenance association end points (MEPs), and maintenance intermediate points (MIPs).

    Figure 1: Relationship of MEPs, MIPs, and Maintenance Domain Levels

    Relationship
of MEPs, MIPs, and Maintenance Domain Levels

    Note: Maintenance intermediate points (MIP) are not supported on the ACX Series routers.

    Ethernet Frame Delay Measurement

    Two key objectives of OAM functionality are to measure quality-of-service attributes such as frame delay and frame delay variation (also known as “frame jitter”). Such measurements can enable you to identify network problems before customers are impacted by network defects.

    Junos OS supports Ethernet frame delay measurement between MEPs configured on Ethernet physical or logical interfaces on MX Series routers. Ethernet frame delay measurement provides fine control to operators for triggering delay measurement on a given service and can be used to monitor SLAs. Ethernet frame delay measurement also collects other useful information, such as worst and best case delays, average delay, and average delay variation. The Junos OS implementation of Ethernet frame delay measurement (ETH-DM) is fully compliant with the ITU-T Recommendation Y.1731, OAM Functions and Mechanisms for Ethernet-based Networks. The recommendation defines OAM mechanisms for operating and maintaining the network at the Ethernet service layer, which is called the "ETH layer" in ITU-T terminology.

    MX Series routers with modular port concentrators (MPCs) and 10-Gigabit Ethernet MPCs with SFP+ support ITU-T Y.1731 functionality on VPLS for frame-delay and delay-variation.

    One-Way Ethernet Frame Delay Measurement

    In one-way ETH-DM mode, a series of frame delay and frame delay variation values are calculated based on the time elapsed between the time a measurement frame is sent from the initiator MEP at one router and the time when the frame is received at the receiver MEP at the other router.

    1DM Transmission

    When you start a one-way frame delay measurement, the router sends 1DM frames—frames that carry the protocol data unit (PDU) for a one-way delay measurement—from the initiator MEP to the receiver MEP at the rate and for the number of frames you specify. The router marks each 1DM frame as drop-ineligible and inserts a timestamp of the transmission time into the frame.

    1DM Reception

    When an MEP receives a 1DM frame, the router that contains the receiver MEP measures the one-way delay for that frame (the difference between the time the frame was received and the timestamp contained in the frame itself) and the delay variation (the difference between the current and previous delay values).

    One-Way ETH-DM Statistics

    The router that contains the receiver MEP stores each set of one-way delay statistics in the ETH-DM database. The ETH-DM database collects up to 100 sets of statistics for any given CFM session (pair of peer MEPs). You can access these statistics at any time by displaying the ETH-DM database contents.

    One-Way ETH-DM Frame Counts

    Each router counts the number of one-way ETH-DM frames sent and received:

    • For an initiator MEP, the router counts the number of 1DM frames sent.
    • For a receiver MEP, the router counts the number of valid 1DM frames received and the number of invalid 1DM frames received.

    Each router stores ETH-DM frame counts in the CFM database. The CFM database stores CFM session statistics and, for interfaces that support ETH-DM, any ETH-DM frame counts. You can access the frame counts at any time by displaying CFM database information for Ethernet interfaces assigned to MEPs or for MEPs in CFM sessions.

    Synchronization of System Clocks

    The accuracy of one-way delay calculations depends on close synchronization of the system clocks at the initiator MEP and receiver MEP.

    The accuracy of one-way delay variation is not dependent on system clock synchronization. Because delay variation is simply the difference between consecutive one-way delay values, the out-of-phase period is eliminated from the frame jitter values.

    Note: For a given one-way Ethernet frame delay measurement, frame delay and frame delay variation values are available only on the router that contains the receiver MEP.

    Two-Way Ethernet Frame Delay Measurement

    In two-way ETH-DM mode, frame delay and frame delay variation values are based on the time difference between when the initiator MEP transmits a request frame and receives a reply frame from the responder MEP, subtracting the time elapsed at the responder MEP.

    DMM Transmission

    When you start a two-way frame delay measurement, the router sends delay measurement message (DMM) frames— frames that carry the PDU for a two-way ETH-DM request—from the initiator MEP to the responder MEP at the rate and for the number of frames you specify. The router marks each DMM frame as drop-ineligible and inserts a timestamp of the transmission time into the frame.

    DMR Transmission

    When an MEP receives a DMM frame, the responder MEP responds with a delay measurement reply (DMR) frame, which carries ETH-DM reply information and a copy of the timestamp contained in the DMM frame.

    DMR Reception

    When an MEP receives a valid DMR, the router that contains the MEP measures the two-way delay for that frame based on the following sequence of timestamps:

    1. TITxDMM
    2. TRRxDMM
    3. TRTxDMR
    4. TIRxDMR

    A two-way frame delay is calculated as follows:

    • [TIRxDMR – TITxDMM] – [TRTxDMR – TRRxDMM]

    The calculation show that frame delay is the difference between the time at which the initiator MEP sends a DMM frame and the time at which the initiator MEP receives the associated DMR frame from the responder MEP, minus the time elapsed at the responder MEP.

    The delay variation is the difference between the current and previous delay values.

    Two-Way ETH-DM Statistics

    The router that contains the initiator MEP stores each set of two-way delay statistics in the ETH-DM database. The ETH-DM database collects up to 100 sets of statistics for any given CFM session (pair of peer MEPs). You can access these statistics at any time by displaying the ETH-DM database contents.

    Two-Way ETH-DM Frame Counts

    Each router counts the number of two-way ETH-DM frames sent and received:

    • For an initiator MEP, the router counts the number DMM frames transmitted, the number of valid DMR frames received, and the number of invalid DMR frames received.
    • For a responder MEP, the router counts the number of DMR frames sent.

    Each router stores ETH-DM frame counts in the CFM database. The CFM database stores CFM session statistics and, for interfaces that support ETH-DM, any ETH-DM frame counts. You can access the frame counts at any time by displaying CFM database information for Ethernet interfaces assigned to MEPs or for MEPs in CFM sessions.

    Note: For a given two-way Ethernet frame delay measurement, frame delay and frame delay variation values are available only at the router that contains the initiator MEP.

    Choosing Between One-Way and Two-Way ETH-DM

    One-way frame delay measurement requires that the system clocks at the initiator MEP and receiver MEP are closely synchronized. Two-way frame delay measurement does not require synchronization of the two systems. If it is not practical for the clocks to be synchronized, two-way frame delay measurements are more accurate.

    When two systems are physically close to each other, their one-way delay values are very high compared to their two-way delay values. One-way delay measurement requires that the timing for the two systems be synchronized at a very granular level, and MX Series routers currently do not support this granular synchronization.

    Restrictions for Ethernet Frame Delay Measurement

    The following restrictions apply to the Ethernet frame delay measurement feature:

    • The ETH-DM feature is not supported on label-switched interface (LSI) pseudowires.

      The ETH-DM feature is supported on aggregated Ethernet interfaces.

    • Hardware-assisted timestamping for ETH-DM frames in the reception path is only supported for MEP interfaces on Enhanced DPCs and Enhanced Queuing DPCs in MX Series routers.
    • Ethernet frame delay measurements can be triggered only when the distributed periodic packet management daemon (ppm) is enabled.
    • You can monitor only one session at a time to the same remote MEP or MAC address.
    • ETH-DM statistics are collected at only one of the two peer routers in the ETH-DM session. For a one-way ETH-DM session, you can display frame ETH-DM statistics at the receiver MEP only, using ETH-DM-specific show commands. For a two-way ETH-DM session, you can display frame delay statistics at the initiator MEP only, using the same ETH-DM-specific show commands.
    • ETH-DM frame counts are collected at both MEPs and are stored in the respective CFM databases.
    • If graceful Routing Engine switchover (GRES) occurs, any collected ETH-DM statistics are lost, and ETH-DM frame counts are reset to zeroes. Therefore, the collection of ETH-DM statistics and ETH-DM frame counters has to be restarted, after the switchover is complete. GRES enables a router with dual Routing Engines to switch from a master Routing Engine to a backup Routing Engine without interruption to packet forwarding.
    • Accuracy of frame delay statistics is compromised when the system is changing (such as from reconfiguration). We recommend performing Ethernet frame delay measurements on a stable system.

    Modified: 2016-01-28