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Gather Statistics on MPLS Sessions

Configuring MPLS to Gather Statistics

You can configure MPLS so that it periodically gathers traffic statistics about all MPLS sessions, including transit sessions, by configuring the statistics statement. You must configure the statistics statement if you want to collect MPLS traffic statistics using SNMP polling of MPLS Management Information Bases (MIBs).

To enable or disable MPLS statistics collection, include the statistics statement:

You can configure these statements at the following hierarchy levels:

  • [edit protocols mpls]

  • [edit logical-systems logical-system-name protocols mpls]

The default interval is 300 seconds.

If you configure the file option, the statistics are placed in a file, with one entry per LSP. During the specified interval, the following information is recorded in this file:

  • The number of packets, number of bytes, packets per second, and bytes per second transmitted by each LSP. Feature parity for the display of packet and byte statistics for sub-LSPs of a point-to-multipoint LSP on the Junos Trio chipset is supported in Junos OS Releases 11.1R2, 11.2R2, and 11.4.

  • The percent of bandwidth transmitted over a given LSP in relation to the bandwidth percentage configured for that LSP. If no bandwidth is configured for an LSP, 0 percent is recorded in the percentage column.

At the end of each periodic report, a summary shows the current time, total number of sessions, number of sessions read, number of sessions ignored, and read errors, if any. Ignored sessions are typically those not in the up state or those with a reserved (0 through 15) incoming label (typically the egress point of an LSP). The reason for a read error appears on the same line as the entry for the LSP on which the error occurred. Gathering statistics is an unreliable process; occasional read errors might affect their accuracy. Sample output follows:

On-Demand Packet Loss and Delay Measurement for UHP LSPs Overview

This topic describes methods for measuring packet loss, delay, and throughput for point-to-point ultimate hop popping (UHP) label-switched paths (LSPs) in MPLS networks to enable monitoring of network performance.

Importance of Measuring Packet Loss and Delay

The rise of bandwidth-consuming applications, such as IPTV and mobile video, coupled with the pressure to minimize the cost per bit and maximize the value per bit, is forcing carriers to transition their transport networks from circuit-based technologies to packet-based technologies. MPLS is a widely successful, connection-oriented packet transport technology that is ideally suited for packet-based transport networks.

With the emergence of new applications on data networks, it is becoming increasingly important for service providers to accurately predict the impact of new application rollouts. Understanding and modelling network performance in the network is especially relevant for deployment of new-world applications to ensure successful implementations. In packet networks, packet loss and delay are two of the most fundamental measures of performance. Their role is even more central when it comes to end-to-end measurements.

The traffic belonging to most of the end-to-end user applications is either loss sensitive (file transfer), delay sensitive (voice or video applications), or both (interactive computing applications). The service-level agreements (SLAs) of service providers depend on the ability to measure and monitor these network performance metrics, as the SLAs are directly or indirectly dependent on the loss and delay the customer traffic experiences in the service provider network.

To ensure compliance to the SLA, service providers need tools to measure and monitor the performance metrics for packet loss, one-way delay and two-way delay, and related metrics, such as delay variation and channel throughput. This measurement capability provides service providers with greater visibility into the performance characteristics of their networks, thereby facilitating planning, troubleshooting, and network performance evaluation.

Defining Packet Loss, Delay, and Throughput

In packet networks, packet loss and delay are two of the most fundamental measures of performance.

  • Loss—Packet loss is the failure of one or more transmitted packets to arrive at their destination. Packet loss refers to the packets of data that are dropped by the network to manage congestion.

    Data applications are very tolerant to packet loss, as they are generally not time sensitive and can retransmit the packets that were dropped. However, in video conference environments and pure audio communications, such as VoIP, packet loss can create jitter.

  • Delay—Packet delay (also called latency) is the amount of time it takes for a packet of data to get from one designated point to another, depending on the speed of the transmission medium, such as copper wire, optical fiber, or radio waves, and the delays in transmission by devices along the way, such as routers and modems.

    A low latency indicates a high network efficiency.

  • Throughput—Packet delay measures the amount of time between the start of an action and its completion, whereas throughput is the total number of such actions that occur in a given amount of time.

Packet Loss and Delay Measurement Mechanisms

Packet delay and loss are two fundamental measures of network performance. Junos OS provides an on-demand mechanism to measure packet loss and delay over associated bidirectional MPLS ultimate hop popping (UHP) label-switched paths (LSPs).

The on-demand delay and packet loss measurement mechanism is initiated using the following CLI commands:

  • monitor mpls loss rsvp—Performs an on-demand loss measurement for associated bidirectional UHP LSPs.

  • monitor mpls delay rsvp—Performs an on-demand delay measurement for associated bidirectional UHP LSPs.

  • monitor mpls loss-delay rsvp—Performs an on-demand combined loss and delay measurement for associated bidirectional UHP LSPs.

For initiating the delay and packet loss measuring mechanism, the desired parameters for measurement, such as the type of measurement and LSP name, need to be entered. On receiving the parameters, a summary of the performance monitoring data is displayed and the mechanism is terminated.

Packet Loss and Delay Metrics

The following performance metrics are measured using the on-demand packet loss and delay mechanisms:

  • Loss measurement (packet and octet)

  • Throughput measurement (packet and octet)

  • Two-way channel delay

  • Round-trip delay

  • Inter-packet delay variation (IPDV)

The monitor mpls loss rsvp command performs the loss and throughput measurement, and the monitor mpls delay rsvp command performs the two-way channel delay, round-trip delay, and IPDV measurements. The monitor mpls loss-delay rsvp command performs a combined loss and delay measurement and measures all of the above-mentioned performance metrics simultaneously.

Packet Loss and Delay Measurement Concepts

The following concepts help to better understand the functionality of packet loss and delay:

  • Querier—A querier is the ingress provider edge (PE) router, which originates the query message for loss or delay measurement.

  • Responder—A responder is the egress PE router, which receives and responds to the query messages from a querier.

  • Associated bidirectional LSP—An associated bidirectional LSP consists of two unidirectional LSPs that are tied together (or associated with each other) through configuration on both of the LSP end points.

    The on-demand loss and delay measurement can be carried out only on associated bidirectional UHP LSPs.

  • Generic associated channel (G-Ach)—The performance monitoring messages for the on-demand loss and delay measurement flow over the MPLS G-Ach. This type of channel supports only in-band responses, and does not provide support for out-of-band or no-response modes.

  • Measurement point (MP)—MP is the location at which a condition is described for the measurement.

    The MP for packet loss on the transmit side is between the switching fabric and the transmit interface. The counter value is stamped in the loss measurement message in the hardware before it is queued for transmission.

    The MP for packet loss on the receive side is between the receive interface and the switching fabric. The MP is distributed on the receive side. Furthermore, when the transmit interface is an aggregate interface, the MP is distributed as well.

  • Query rate—Query rate is the interval between two queries sent for loss and delay measurement.

    Because the loss and delay measurement messages originate from the Routing Engine, a high query rate for multiple channels puts a heavy burden on the Routing Engine. The minimum query interval supported is 1 second.

    The query rate should be high for 32-bit counters, because the counters might wrap quickly when data traffic rate is very high. The query rate can be low when 64-bit counters are in use at all the four measurement point locations involved in loss measurement. Junos OS supports only 64-bit counters.

  • Traffic class—By default, loss measurement is supported for the whole channel. Junos OS also supports traffic class scoped packet loss measurement, where counters that maintain data traffic statistics per traffic class have to be created.

    Per traffic class counters are not created by default. To configure traffic class scoped loss measurement, include the traffic-class-statistics statement at the [edit protocols mpls statistics] hierarchy level.

    When traffic-class-statistics is configured, control packets flowing over the G-Ach are not counted in the transmit and receive counters.

    Note:

    Enabling and disabling of traffic class statistics results in the resetting of all counters (aggregate counter and per-class counters) for the LSPs.

  • Loss measurement mode—Junos OS supports the direct-mode of on-demand loss measurement, and does not provide support for the inferred-mode.

    Direct loss measurement requires data traffic statistics to be maintained at the ingress and egress of two unidirectional LSPs of the associated bidirectional LSP. When an MX Series router is using only MPCs and MICs, counters to maintain data traffic statistics are created by default at the ingress of all types of LSPs and egress of UHP LSPs.

    However, the direct-mode of loss measurement is not fully accurate due to the following reasons:

    • Parallel forwarding nature of the hardware.

    • Presence of equal cost multipath (ECMP) in the network, such as aggregated Ethernet interfaces, which can result in re-ordering of data packets relative to the loss measurement messages.

    • Control packets that do not flow over G-Ach are not counted at the LSP ingress, but are counted at the LSP egress.

    • Data traffic re-ordering relative to the loss measurement message when a Diffserv is implemented in the MPLS network and loss measurement scope is the complete channel and not traffic class scoped.

      To overcome this limitation, perform traffic class scoped loss measurement when a Diffserv is implemented.

    Note:

    Direct mode loss measurement is vulnerable to disruption when the ingress or egress interface associated with the LSP changes.

  • Loss measurement synchronization—The synchronization conditions specified in section 2.9.8 of RFC 6374 do not hold true in the absolute sense. However, as the loss measurement counters are stamped in hardware, the errors introduced due to not satisfying the synchronization conditions are relatively small. These errors need to be quantified.

    When the transmit or receive interface of the LSP is an aggregate interface, more errors are introduced as compared to when the interfaces are non-aggregate interfaces. In any case, the loss measurement counters are stamped in hardware, and the error needs to be quantified.

  • Delay measurement accuracy—When the transmit and receive interfaces reside on different Packet Forwarding Engines, the clock must be synchronized on these Packet Forwarding Engines for two-way delay measurements. This condition holds true for the platform on which the on-demand delay measurement feature is implemented.

    When there are aggregate interfaces or ECMP, the delay is measured for only one of the potential paths.

    When a combined loss and delay message is used for delay calculation, the accuracy of delay is lower compared to when the delay measurement message is used in some cases, such as when the transmit or receive interface is an aggregate interface.

    Delay measurement is always performed on a per-traffic-class basis, and the accuracy of the measurement needs to be quantified after testing.

  • Timestamp format—Junos OS supports only the IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) [IEEE1588] format for recording delay measurement messages. Network Time Format (NTP) is not supported.

  • Operations, administration, and maintenance (OAM)—To indicate that all the OAM messages for MPLS LSPs flow over the MPLS G-Ach, and to enable the MPLS performance monitoring messages to be carried over the MPLS G-Ach, the oam mpls-tp-mode statement must be included at the [edit protocols mpls label-switched-path lsp-name] hierarchy level.

Packet Loss and Delay Measurement Functionality

Figure 1 illustrates the basic methods used for the bidirectional measurement of packet loss and delay. A bidirectional channel exists between the two routers, Router A and Router B. The temporal reference points – T1, T2, T3, and T4 – are associated with a measurement operation that takes place at Router A. The operation consists of Router A sending a query message to Router B, and Router B sending back a response. Each reference point indicates the point of time at which either the query or the response message is transmitted or received over the channel.

Figure 1: Basic Bidirectional MeasurementBasic Bidirectional Measurement

In Figure 1, Router A can arrange to measure the packet loss over the channel in the forward and reverse directions by sending loss measurement query messages to Router B. Each of the forward and reverse messages contain the count of packets transmitted prior to time T1 over the channel to Router B (A_TxP).

When the message reaches Router B, two values are appended to the message and the message is reflected back to Router A. The two values are the count of packets received prior to time T2 over the channel from Router A (B_RxP) and the count of packets transmitted prior to time T3 over the channel to Router A (B_TxP).

When the response reaches Router A, a fourth value is appended to the message – the count of packets received prior to time T4 over the channel from Router B (A_RxP).

These four counter values – (A_TxP), (B_RxP), (B_TxP), and (A_RxP) – enable Router A to compute the desired loss statistics. Because the transmit count at Router A and the receive count at Router B (and vice versa) might not be synchronized at the time of the first message, and to limit the effects of counter wrap, the loss is computed in the form of a delta between the messages.

The transmit loss (A_TxLoss[n-1,n]) and receive loss (A_RxLoss[n-1,n]) within the measurement interval marked by the messages LM[n-1] and LM[n] are computed by Router A as follows:

  1. A_TxLoss[n-1,n] = (A_TxP[n] - A_TxP[n-1]) - (B_RxP[n] - B_RxP[n-1])

  2. A_RxLoss[n-1,n] = (B_TxP[n] - B_TxP[n-1]) - (A_RxP[n] - A_RxP[n-1])

The arithmetic is modulo the counter size.

To measure at Router A the delay over the channel to Router B, a delay measurement query message is sent from Router A to Router B containing a timestamp recording the instant at which it is transmitted. In Figure 1, the timestamp is recorded in T1.

When the message reaches Router B, a timestamp is added, recording the instant at which it is received (T2). The message can now be reflected from Router B to Router A, with Router B adding its transmit timestamp (T3) and Router A adding its receive timestamp (T4).

These four timestamps – T1, T2, T3, and T4 – enable Router A to compute the one-way delay in each direction, as well as the two-way delay for the channel. The one-way delay computations require that the clocks of Routers A and B be synchronized.

At this point, Router A can compute the two-way channel delay and round-trip delay associated with the channel as follows:

  1. Two-way channel delay = (T4 - T1) - (T3 - T2)

  2. Round-trip delay = T4 - T1

Packet Loss and Delay Features

Supported Features of Packet Loss and Delay

Junos OS supports the following features with on-demand loss and delay measurement:

  • Performance monitoring for associated bidirectional MPLS point-to-point UHP LSPs only

  • Loss measurement

  • Throughput measurement

  • Two-way delay measurement (channel delay and round-trip delay)

  • Inter-packet delay variation (IPDV)

  • Direct-mode loss measurement

  • Aggregated Ethernet and aggregated SONET interfaces

  • Multichassis support

  • 64-bit compatible

Unsupported Features of Packet Loss and Delay

Junos OS does not support the following on-demand loss and delay measurement functionality:

  • Loss and delay measurement for pseudowires (section 2.9.1 of RFC 6374)

  • Unidirectional measurement (section 2.6 of RFC 6374)

  • Dyadic measurement (section 2.7 of RFC 6374)

  • Loss and delay measurement in loopback mode (section 2.8 of RFC 6374)

  • Loss and delay measurement to an intermediate node from an LSP endpoint (section 2.9.5 of RFC 6374)

  • External post-processing (section 2.9.7 of RFC 6374)

  • Inferred-mode loss measurement (section 2.9.8 of RFC 6374)

  • Pro-active mode

  • Logical systems

  • SNMP

Example: Configuring On-Demand Loss and Delay Measurement

This example shows how to enable on-demand loss and delay measurement for point-to-point ultimate hop popping (UHP) label-switched paths (LSPs) in MPLS networks to monitor network performance.

Requirements

This example uses the following hardware and software components:

  • Two MX Series 5G Universal Routing Platforms that contain MPC/MICs only

  • Junos OS Release 14.2 or later running on all the routers

Before you begin:

  1. Configure the device interfaces.

  2. Configure the autonomous system numbers and router IDs for the devices.

  3. Configure the following protocols:

    • RSVP

    • MPLS

    • OSPF

Overview

Starting with Junos OS Release 14.2, an on-demand tool to monitor and measure packet loss, packet delay, or both for associated bidirectional MPLS ultimate hop popping (UHP) point-to-point label-switched paths (LSPs) is introduced. The tool can be enabled using the following CLI commands – monitor mpls loss rsvp, monitor mpls delay rsvp, and monitor mpls loss-delay rsvp.

These commands provide an on-demand summary of performance metrics for direct mode packet loss, two-way packet delay, and related metrics, such as inter-packet delay variation and channel throughput measurement.

This functionality provides real-time visibility into network performance, thereby facilitating network performance planning, troubleshooting, and evaluation.

Topology

Figure 2 illustrates the on-demand loss and delay measurement using a simple two-router topology.

Figure 2: Configuring On-Demand Loss and Delay Measurement Configuring On-Demand Loss and Delay Measurement

In this example, an associated bidirectional LSP is configured between Routers R1 and R2, for which the performance metrics is measured.

Configuration

CLI Quick Configuration

To quickly configure this example, copy the following commands, paste them into a text file, remove any line breaks, change any details necessary to match your network configuration, copy and paste the commands into the CLI at the [edit] hierarchy level, and then enter commit from configuration mode.

R1

R2

Procedure

Step-by-Step Procedure

The following example requires that you navigate various levels in the configuration hierarchy. For information about navigating the CLI, see Using the CLI Editor in Configuration Mode in the CLI User Guide.

To configure Router R1:

  1. Enable the chassis with tunnel services and enhanced IP network services configuration.

  2. Configure the interfaces for Router R1.

  3. Configure the router ID for Router R1.

  4. Enable RSVP on all the interfaces of Router R1, excluding the management interface.

  5. Enable MPLS on all the interfaces of Router R1, excluding the management interface.

  6. Configure an associated bidirectional LSP to Router R2.

  7. Create traffic classes for maintaining data traffic statistics per traffic class.

    This enables traffic class scoped loss measurement.

  8. Configure OSPF with traffic engineering capabilities, and enable OSPF on all the interfaces of Router R1, excluding the management interface.

Results

From configuration mode, confirm your configuration by entering the show chassis, show interfaces, show routing-options, and show protocols commands. If the output does not display the intended configuration, repeat the instructions in this example to correct the configuration.

Verification

Confirm that the configuration is working properly.

Verifying the LSP Status

Purpose

Verify that the associated bidirectional LSP between Routers R1 and R2 is up.

Action

From operational mode, run the show mpls lsp command.

Meaning

The associated bidirectional LSP R1-R2 is up and active.

Verifying Packet Loss Measurement

Purpose

Verify the on-demand loss measurement result.

Action

From operational mode, run the monitor mpls loss rsvp R1-R2 count 2 detail command.

Meaning

The packet loss measurement for two counts is displayed.

Verifying Packet Delay Measurement

Purpose

Verify the on-demand delay measurement result.

Action

From operational mode, run the monitor mpls delay rsvp R1-R2 count 2 detail command.

Meaning

The packet delay measurement for two counts is displayed.

Verifying Packet Loss-Delay Measurement

Purpose

Verify the on-demand loss and delay measurement result.

Action

From operational mode, run the monitor mpls loss-delay rsvp R1-R2 count 2 detail command.

Meaning

The packet loss and delay measurement for two counts is displayed.

Example: Configuring Pro-active Loss and Delay Measurements for Bidirectional MPLS LSPs

This example shows how to configure pro-active loss and delay measurements for point-to-point ultimate-hop popping label-switched paths (LSPs) in MPLS networks to monitor network performance.

Requirements

This example uses the following hardware and software components:

  • Two MX Series 5G Universal Routing Platforms that contain MPC/MICs only

  • Junos OS Release 15.1 or later running on all the routers

Before you begin:

  1. Configure the device interfaces.

  2. Configure the autonomous system numbers and router IDs for the devices.

  3. Configure the following protocols:

    1. MPLS

    2. OSPF

    3. RSVP

Overview

Starting with Junos OS Release 15.1, a pro-active tool to monitor and measure packet loss, packet delay, or both for associated bidirectional MPLS ultimate-hop popping point-to-point label-switched paths (LSPs) is introduced.

This feature provides the following performance metrics:

  • Inter-packet delay variation (IPDV)

  • Loss measurement

  • Round-trip delay (RTT)

  • Throughput measurement

  • Two-way channel delay

This functionality provides real-time visibility into network performance, thereby facilitating network performance planning, troubleshooting, and evaluation.

Topology

Figure 3 illustrates the pro-active loss and delay measurements using a simple two-router topology.

Figure 3: Configuring Pro-Active Loss and Delay Measurements Configuring Pro-Active Loss and Delay Measurements

In this example, an associated bidirectional LSP is configured between Routers R1 and R2, for which the performance metrics are measured.

Configuration

CLI Quick Configuration

To quickly configure this example, copy the following commands, paste them into a text file, remove any line breaks, change any details necessary to match your network configuration, copy and paste the commands into the CLI at the [edit] hierarchy level, and then enter commit from configuration mode.

R1

R2

Procedure

Step-by-Step Procedure

The following example requires that you navigate various levels in the configuration hierarchy. For information about navigating the CLI, see Using the CLI Editor in Configuration Mode in the CLI User Guide.

To configure Router R1:

  1. Enable the enhanced IP network services configuration.

  2. Configure the interfaces for Router R1.

  3. Configure the router ID for Router R1.

  4. Enable RSVP on all the interfaces of Router R1, excluding the management interface.

  5. Enable MPLS on all the interfaces of Router R1, excluding the management interface.

  6. Configure an associated bidirectional LSP to Router R2.

  7. Create traffic classes for maintaining data traffic statistics per traffic class.

    This enables traffic class scoped loss and delay measurement.

  8. Configure performance monitoring at the querier side.

  9. Configure performance monitoring at the responder side.

  10. Configure OSPF with traffic engineering capabilities, and enable OSPF on all the interfaces of Router R1, excluding the management interface.

Results

From configuration mode, confirm your configuration by entering the show chassis, show interfaces, show routing-options, and show protocols commands. If the output does not display the intended configuration, repeat the instructions in this example to correct the configuration.

Verification

Verifying Loss and Delay Measurement

Purpose

Verify the loss and delay measurement.

Action

From operational mode, run the show performance-monitoring mpls lsp command.

Meaning

The packet loss and delay measurement metrics for LSP are displayed.

Configuring On-Demand Loss and Delay Measurement

You can configure an on-demand loss and delay measurement for point-to-point ultimate hop popping (UHP) label-switched paths (LSPs) in MPLS networks to monitor network performance. The monitor mpls loss rsvp, monitor mpls delay rsvp, and monitor mpls loss-delay rsvp CLI commands provide an on-demand summary of performance metrics for direct mode packet loss, two-way packet delay, and related metrics, such as inter-packet delay variation and channel throughput measurement.

This functionality provides real-time visibility into network performance, thereby facilitating network performance planning, troubleshooting, and evaluation.

Before you begin:

  1. Configure the device interfaces.

  2. Configure the device router ID.

  3. Configure the following protocols:

    • RSVP

    • OSPF

      Enable traffic engineering capabilities.

    • MPLS

To configure the PE device:

  1. Enable the chassis with tunnel services and enhanced IP network services configuration.
  2. Configure an associated bidirectional LSP to the remote router.
  3. Create traffic classes for maintaining data traffic statistics per traffic class.

    This enables traffic class scoped loss measurement.

Configuring Pro-Active Loss and Delay Measurements

You can configure pro-active loss and delay measurements for point-to-point ultimate-hop popping label-switched paths (LSPs) in MPLS networks to monitor network performance. The show performance-monitoring mpls lsp CLI command provides a summary of performance metrics for direct mode packet loss, two-way packet delay, and related metrics, such as inter-packet delay variation and channel throughput measurement.

This functionality provides real-time visibility into network performance, thereby facilitating network performance planning, troubleshooting, and evaluation.

This feature provides the following performance metrics:

  • Inter-packet delay variation (IPDV)

  • Loss measurement

  • Round-trip delay (RTT)

  • Throughput measurement

  • Two-way channel delay

Before you begin:

  1. Configure the device interfaces.

  2. Configure the autonomous system numbers and router IDs for the devices.

  3. Configure the following protocols:

    • MPLS

    • OSPF

    • RSVP

To configure pro-active loss and delay measurements on the PE device:

  1. Configure an associated bidirectional LSP to Router R2.
  2. Create traffic classes for maintaining data traffic statistics per traffic class.

    This enables traffic class scoped loss and delay measurements.

  3. Configure performance monitoring at the querier side.
  4. Configure performance monitoring at the responder side.