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Routing Engine Interface Cable and Wire Specifications for the SRX5400 Firewall

Signal Loss in Multimode and Single-Mode Fiber-Optic Cable for the SRX5400 Firewall

Attenuation and Dispersion in Fiber-Optic Cable for the SRX5400 Firewall

Calculating Power Budget for Fiber-Optic Cable for the SRX5400 Firewall

Calculating Power Margin for Fiber-Optic Cable for the SRX5400 Firewall

# SRX5400 Network Cable and Transceiver Planning

## Routing Engine Interface Cable and Wire Specifications for the SRX5400 Firewall

Table 1 lists the specifications for the cables that connect to management ports and the wires that connect to the alarm relay contacts.

Port |
Cable Specification |
Cable/Wire Supplied |
Maximum Length |
Routing Engine Receptacle |
---|---|---|---|---|

Routing Engine console or auxiliary interface |
RS-232 (EIA-232) serial cable |
One 6-ft (1.83-m) length with RJ-45/DB-9 connectors |
6 ft (1.83 m) |
RJ-45 socket |

Routing Engine Ethernet interface |
Category 5 cable or equivalent suitable for 100Base-T operation |
One 15-ft (4.57-m) length with RJ-45/RJ-45 connectors |
328 ft (100 m) |
RJ-45 autosensing |

## Signal Loss in Multimode and Single-Mode Fiber-Optic Cable for the SRX5400 Firewall

Multimode fiber is large enough in diameter to allow rays of light to reflect internally (bounce off the walls of the fiber). Interfaces with multimode optics typically use LEDs as light sources. LEDs are not coherent sources, however. They spray varying wavelengths of light into the multimode fiber, which reflects the light at different angles. Light rays travel in jagged lines through a multimode fiber, causing signal dispersion. When light traveling in the fiber core radiates into the fiber cladding, higher-order mode loss (HOL) results. Together these factors limit the transmission distance of multimode fiber compared to single-mode fiber.

Single-mode fiber is so small in diameter that rays of light can reflect internally through one layer only. Interfaces with single-mode optics use lasers as light sources. Lasers generate a single wavelength of light, which travels in a straight line through the single-mode fiber. Compared with multimode fiber, single-mode fiber has higher bandwidth and can carry signals for longer distances. It is consequently more expensive.

## Attenuation and Dispersion in Fiber-Optic Cable for the SRX5400 Firewall

Correct functioning of an optical data link depends
on modulated light reaching the receiver with enough power to be demodulated
correctly. *Attenuation* is the reduction in power
of the light signal as it is transmitted. Attenuation is caused by
passive media components, such as cables, cable splices, and connectors.
While attenuation is significantly lower for optical fiber than for
other media, it still occurs in both multimode and single-mode transmission.
An efficient optical data link must have enough light available to
overcome attenuation.

*Dispersion* is the spreading of the signal
in time. The following two types of dispersion can affect an optical
data link:

Chromatic dispersion—The spreading of the signal in time resulting from the different speeds of light rays.

Modal dispersion—The spreading of the signal in time resulting from the different propagation modes in the fiber.

For multimode transmission, modal dispersion, rather than chromatic dispersion or attenuation, usually limits the maximum bit rate and link length. For single-mode transmission, modal dispersion is not a factor. However, at higher bit rates and over longer distances, chromatic dispersion rather than modal dispersion limits maximum link length.

An efficient optical data link must have enough light to exceed the minimum power that the receiver requires to operate within its specifications. In addition, the total dispersion must be less than the limits specified for the type of link in Telcordia Technologies document GR-253-CORE (Section 4.3) and International Telecommunications Union (ITU) document G.957.

When chromatic dispersion is at the maximum allowed, its effect can be considered as a power penalty in the power budget. The optical power budget must allow for the sum of component attenuation, power penalties (including those from dispersion), and a safety margin for unexpected losses.

## Calculating Power Budget for Fiber-Optic Cable for the SRX5400 Firewall

To ensure
that fiber-optic connections have sufficient power for correct operation,
you need to calculate the link's power budget, which is the maximum
amount of power it can transmit. When you calculate the power budget,
you use a worst-case analysis to provide a margin of error, even though
all the parts of an actual system do not operate at the worst-case
levels. To calculate the worst-case estimate of power budget (`PB`), you assume minimum transmitter
power (`PT`) and minimum
receiver sensitivity (`PR`):

`PB = PT – PR`

The following hypothetical power budget equation uses values measured in decibels (dB) and decibels referred to one milliwatt (dBm):

`PB = PT – PR`

`PB` = –15
dBm – (–28 dBm)

`PB` = 13
dB

## Calculating Power Margin for Fiber-Optic Cable for the SRX5400 Firewall

After calculating a link's power budget, you can calculate the
power margin (`PM`), which
represents the amount of power available after subtracting attenuation
or link loss (`LL`) from the power budget (`PB`). A worst-case estimate of `PM` assumes maximum `LL`:

`PM = PB – LL`

A `PM` greater than
zero indicates that the power budget is sufficient to operate the
receiver.

Factors that can cause link loss include higher-order mode losses, modal and chromatic dispersion, connectors, splices, and fiber attenuation. Table 2 lists an estimated amount of loss for the factors used in the following sample calculations. For information about the actual amount of signal loss caused by equipment and other factors, see your vendor documentation.

Link-Loss Factor |
Estimated Link-Loss Value |
---|---|

Higher-order mode losses |
Single-mode—None Multimode—0.5 dB |

Modal and chromatic dispersion |
Single-mode—None Multimode—None, if product of bandwidth and distance is less than 500 MHz–km |

Connector |
0.5 dB |

Splice |
0.5 dB |

Fiber attenuation |
Single-mode—0.5 dB/km Multimode—1 dB/km |

The following example uses the estimated values in Table 2 to calculate link loss (`LL`) for a 2 km-long multimode link with a power budget
(`PB`) of 13 dB:

Fiber attenuation for 2 km @ 1.0 dB/km= 2 dB

Loss for five connectors @ 0.5 dB per connector = 5(0.5 dB) = 2.5 dB

Loss for two splices @ 0.5 dB per splice =2(0.5 dB) = 1 dB

Higher-order loss = 0.5 dB

Clock recovery module = 1 dB

The power margin (`PM`) is calculated as follows:

`PM = PB – LL`

`PM` = 13
dB – 2 km (1.0 dB/km) – 5 (0.5 dB) – 2 (0.5 dB)
– 0.5 dB [HOL] – 1 dB [CRM]

`PM` = 13
dB – 2 dB – 2.5 dB – 1 dB – 0.5 dB –
1 dB

`PM` = 6
dB

The following sample calculation for an 8 km-long single-mode
link with a power budget (`PB`) of 13 dB uses the estimated values from Table 2 to calculate link loss (`LL`) as the sum of fiber attenuation (8 km @ 0.5 dB/km,
or 4 dB) and loss for seven connectors (0.5 dB per connector,
or 3.5 dB). The power margin (`PM`) is calculated as follows:

P_{M} = P_{B} – LL

`PM` = 13
dB – 8 km (0.5 dB/km) – 7 (0.5 dB)

`PM` = 13
dB – 4 dB – 3.5 dB

`PM` = 5.5
dB

In both examples, the calculated power margin is greater than zero, indicating that the link has sufficient power for transmission and does not exceed the maximum receiver input power.