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Creating and Configuring a New Diameter Remote Network Element

To create and configure a new Diameter remote network element using the Web GUI:

  1. Select Diameter Configuration > Remote Network Elements > Diameter Elements.

    The Diameter Elements List page (Figure 135) appears.

    Figure 135: Diameter Elements List Page

    Diameter
Elements List Page
  2. Click Add.

    The Create Network Element pane (Figure 136) appears.

    Figure 136: Create Network Element Pane

    Create Network
Element Pane
  3. Enter the name by which the other network elements refer to this Diameter remote network element in the Name field.
  4. Optionally, enter a description for the Diameter remote network element in the Description field. The description you associate with the Diameter remote network element is not used during processing.
  5. Add Diameter connections for the new Diameter remote network element. For more information about adding Diameter connections, see Adding Diameter Connections to the Diameter Remote Network Element.

    You can modify the Diameter connection entries by using the Edit and Delete buttons.

  6. Define the order of the Diameter connections by selecting each connection and using the Up or Down arrow. The order specifies the order in which SBR Carrier uses the Diameter connections to send messages to the Diameter remote network element.
  7. Select the mode to be used for sending messages over multiple Diameter connections to the Diameter remote network element. The available options are:
    • Round Robin—SBR Carrier uses Diameter connections in round robin manner as per the ordered list to send messages. If a Diameter connection is not operating then it is excluded from the round robin logic till it starts to work properly.
    • Primary / Backup—SBR Carrier sends all messages over the first Diameter connection defined in the ordered list. If the first Diameter connection fails, all messages are sent over the next Diameter connection in the ordered list. When the first Diameter connection becomes operational again, then SBR Carrier sends all messages over the first Diameter connection.

    Note: To use either of these modes, you must have multiple Diameter connections configured for the Diameter remote network element.

  8. Assign functions to the new Diameter remote network element. For more information about assigning functions, see Assigning Functions to the Diameter Remote Network Element.

    You can modify the function entries by using the Edit and Delete buttons.

  9. Click Save to save the new Diameter remote network element.

    The Diameter Elements List page (Figure 135) displays an updated list of Diameter remote network elements.

Adding Diameter Connections to the Diameter Remote Network Element

SBR Carrier communicates with the remote network element over Diameter connections. You may configure multiple Diameter connections between the server and a remote network element.

Because the Diameter protocol is peer-to-peer, a single, bidirectional Diameter connection carries both incoming and outgoing messages. The Web GUI lets you configure an ordered collection of connections for the remote peers that form the remote network element. This list of remote peer connections is part of the network element. For example, a multi-homed server that presents a different Origin-Host for each of its network connections could be represented as a network element consisting of multiple connections to Diameter peers.

Table 38 summarizes the parameters for configuring Diameter connections.

Table 38: Diameter Connection Parameters

Field

Description

Name

The name of the Diameter connection in SBR Carrier.

Description

A description of the connection (optional). The description you associate with a connection is not used during processing.

Host Name

The Origin-Host name of the remote peer.

Realm Name

The Origin-Realm name of the remote peer.

Require Source IP Match for Connection

This option determines if the source IP address of a connection attempt must match one of the configured IP addresses used to connect to this peer. If this is not selected, traffic will be accepted from any IP address as long as the client presents the correct hostname during the capabilities exchange. This functionality allows other peers to exist behind Network Address Translation (NAT) devices.

IP Address

The IP address used for the connection.

Use IPv6 Networking

Enable this option if you are using IPv6 addressing. Leave it disabled if you are using IPv4 addressing.

Note: SBR Carrier does not support an embedded IPv4 address as an IPv6 address.

Port

The port number used by the remote peer for Diameter messages.

Active

If this option is selected, the server periodically attempts to connect (or reconnect after a connection has failed) to the remote peer. If this option is not selected, a connection is established only after the remote peer actively connects to the server.

TCP / SCTP

Selects the protocol used to carry Diameter messages to the remote peer.

If set to TCP, Diameter messages are sent using TCP.

If set to SCTP, Diameter messages are sent using Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP). This allows you to use multiple IP addresses for a Diameter connection. When the remote peer is running SCTP, SBR Carrier accepts packets from any of its IP addresses (that are defined in the Additional IP addresses field).

Additional IP addresses

An ordered set of IP addresses to use for a multi-link connection, in addition to the IP address specified in the IP Address field. This feature can only be enabled when using SCTP.

To add a Diameter connection for a Diameter remote network element using the Web GUI:

  1. In the Create Network Element pane (Figure 136), click Add in the Connections area.

    The Add Network Connection dialog box appears (Figure 137) with the Identification tab selected.

    For more information about the Diameter connection parameters, see Table 38.

    Figure 137: Add Network Connection Dialog—Identification

    Add Network
Connection Dialog—Identification
  2. Enter a name for the connection in the Name field.
  3. Optionally, enter a description for the connection in the Description field. The description is not used during processing.
  4. Enter the Origin-Host name of the remote peer in the Host Name (Origin-Host) field.
  5. Optionally, select the Require Source IP match for Connection check box if you want to require the source IP address of a connection attempt to match one of the configured IP addresses used to connect to the peer.
  6. Enter the Origin-Realm name of the remote peer in the Realm Name (Origin-Realm) field.
  7. Click the Address tab (Figure 138) and enter the IP address of the remote peer in the IP Address field.

    Figure 138: Add Network Connection Dialog—Address

    Add
Network Connection Dialog—Address
  8. Optionally, select the Use IPv6 check box to use IPv6 addressing.

    Note: SBR Carrier does not support an embedded IPv4 address as an IPv6 address.

  9. Enter the port number that the remote peer uses for Diameter messages in the Port field.
  10. Optionally, select the Active check box if you want the server to actively try to connect to the remote peer.
  11. Click the Protocol tab (Figure 139) to specify the transport protocol used to carry Diameter messages.
    • Select the TCP check box to use the TCP protocol for Diameter messages.
    • Select the SCTP (Default) check box to use the SCTP protocol for Diameter messages and click Add to add an ordered set of IP addresses used for the multi-link connection (in addition to the IP address specified in the IP Address field under the Address tab).

      Caution: On a Linux machine that is installed with Signalware, do not enable SCTP protocol for Diameter connections. Enabling SCTP for both Signalware and Diameter could completely disable SCTP on the machine.

      You can modify the ordered set of IP addresses by using the Edit and Delete buttons.

    Figure 139: Add Network Connection Dialog—Protocol

    Add
Network Connection Dialog—Protocol
  12. Click OK to save the connection.

    The new Diameter connection entry is now displayed in the Connections area in the Create Network Element pane (Figure 136).

Repeat these steps to add multiple Diameter connections for a Diameter remote network element.

Assigning Functions to the Diameter Remote Network Element

The function refers to an IMS function, which means any one of the identified IMS components. An IMS function communicates with other IMS functions exclusively using reference points. Multiple functions can coexist in the same network element.

For example, you might configure a remote network element and assign only a single function to it, such as HSS. On the other hand, you could create a single remote network element and assign multiple functions to it such as the Downstream server and non-3GPP network access functions.

Table 39 provides a description of each of the functions supported by SBR Carrier.

Table 39: Diameter Functions Support in SBR Carrier

Function

Description

Non-3GPP Network

The non-3GPP network function is an AAA source for the direct IP service provided by the non-3GPP network infrastructure.

Downstream

This function is assigned to other 3GPP servers to which this server may forward (proxy) requests.

For example, the HSS may indicate that the request needs to be redirected to another 3GPP server; in which case the local 3GPP server must proxy the request to the remote 3GPP server. The remote 3GPP server would be assigned the Downstream function. Another example would be when a subscriber’s identity or realm decoration indicates roaming, the 3GPP server may need to proxy the request to another 3GPP server outside the home public land mobile network (HPLMN).

HSS

The HSS is a Diameter-based subscriber and policy database used in 3GPP networks that implement IMS R6 or later. SBR Carrier downloads and caches both user credentials and service subscription data (profile data) from the HSS. In addition, SBR Carrier coordinates with other SBR Carrier servers through a registration mechanism in the HSS. The first SBR Carrier server that authenticates a particular subscriber is registered as the responsible server in the HSS. Any subsequent authentications for that subscriber will be redirected to the responsible server, as long as it remains registered. After the subscriber has left the network, the registration may be purged by the SBR Carrier server or the HSS, meaning it is no longer responsible and the next server to authenticate this subscriber may take over. The reference point between SBR Carrier and the HSS is SWx.

ePDG

The ePDG function performs authentication and authorization of tunnel requests, when tunneled IP service (3GPP IP service) is being provided to an untrusted non-3GPP IP access network.

PDG

The PDG function performs authentication and authorization of tunnel requests, when tunneled IP service (3GPP IP Service) is being provided to a non-3GPP IP access network.

Some functions require you to configure routing rules based on either the subscriber identity, known as the IMSI or the realm name. These routing rules are called implicit routing rules. For instance, when you assign the HSS function to a Diameter remote network element, you need to specify which subscribers are served by the HSS.

To assign a function to a Diameter remote network element using the Web GUI:

  1. In the Create Network Element pane (Figure 136), click Add in the Functions area

    The Add Network Function dialog box (Figure 140) appears with the Non-3GPP Network option selected.

    Figure 140: Add Network Function Dialog

    Add Network
Function Dialog
  2. Select the function that you want to assign to the Diameter remote network element.

    The right-side pane displays a brief description of the corresponding function and a Description field. If the function supports implicit routing, the respective configuration tabs will also be displayed in the right-side pane. Figure 141 shows an example dialog for the HSS function.

    Figure 141: Add Network Function Dialog—HSS

    Add
Network Function Dialog—HSS
  3. Optionally, enter a description for the function in the Description field.
  4. Configure implicit routing rules, if the function supports implicit routing. For more information about implicit routing rules configuration, see Configuring Implicit Routing Rules.

    You can modify the prefix and realm routing entries by using the Edit and Delete buttons.

  5. Click OK.

    The new function entry is now displayed in the Functions area in the Create Network Element pane (Figure 136).

    Repeat these steps to assign multiple functions to a Diameter remote network element.

Configuring Implicit Routing Rules

Implicit routing is based on subscriber identity or realm. In non-3GPP networks, the IMSI of the mobile device is used as the subscriber identity.

Table 40 shows the functions that use implicit routing rules, and the type of routing rules used by each function.

Table 40: Functions that Use Implicit Routing Rules

Function

IMSI Prefix Routing

Realm Routing

HSS

Downstream

-

SBR Carrier uses the following priorities to process implicit routing rules:

  1. IMSI
  2. Realm
  3. Default IMSI route (default route for local users)
  4. Default Realm route (default route for all users from all realms)

For example, if both IMSI and realm routing rules are defined for the function, IMSI routing rules take priority over realm routing rules.

Note: Any explicit routing rules defined for a function, take priority over implicit routing rules. For more information about explicit routing rules, see Configuring Request Routing Rules.

Configuring IMSI Routing Rules

IMSI prefix routing allows you to specify which IMSI prefix numbers are associated with the remote peer (function). For example, entering 3000 for the IMSI prefix routing for an HSS instructs SBR Carrier to use this HSS for all requests that have an IMSI beginning with 3000.

To configure IMSI routing rules using the Web GUI:

  1. Click the IMSI Routing tab in the Add Network Function dialog box. For a sample Add Network Function dialog box, see Figure 141.
  2. Define IMSI routing rule.
    • Select the Default Routing Rule for Local Users check box to assign this function to all local subscribers.

    or

    1. Click Add.

      The Add dialog box (Figure 142) is displayed.

      Figure 142: Add Dialog

      Add Dialog
    2. Enter a number in the IMSI Prefix field and click OK. The IMSI Routing tab of the Add Network Function dialog box (for a sample Add Network Function dialog box, see Figure 141) displays the updated list of IMSI prefix routing entries.

    Repeat these steps to create multiple prefix routing entries.

Configuring Realm Routing Rules

The realm routing allows you to specify which realms are routed to the remote peer (function). When a request is received, the server examines the NAI decoration to determine the realm to which the request should be routed. If the request does not contain an NAI decoration, the Destination-Realm in the request is used. For example, if you entered XYZ.com under the realm routing rule for an HSS function, SBR Carrier would retrieve subscriber credentials from this HSS for processing any requests with an NAI decoration that includes XYZ.com.

To configure the realm routing rules using the Web GUI:

  1. Click the Realm Routing tab in the Add Network Function dialog box. For a sample Add Network Function dialog box, see Figure 141.
  2. Define realm routing rule.
    • Select the Default Routing Rule for All Users from All Realms check box to route the requests from all realms to the remote peer.

    or

    1. Click Add.

      The Add dialog box (Figure 143) is displayed.

      Figure 143: Add Dialog

      Add Dialog
    2. Enter the realm name in the Realm field and click OK. The server routes only requests containing the provided real name to the remote peer.

      The Realm Routing tab of the Add Network Function dialog box (for a sample Add Network Function dialog box, see Figure 141) displays the updated list of realm routing entries.

    Repeat these steps to create multiple realm routing entries.

Modified: 2017-03-07