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    Intra-AS IPv6 VPNs

    Understanding Intra-AS IPv6 VPNs

    In Figure 1, a service provider is offering IPv6 VPN service over an MPLS-enabled IPv4 backbone. The base MPLS tunnels are established in the IPv4 core network with either of the MPLS signaling protocols (LDP or RSVP). The ingress PE router pushes the LSP tunnel label directly onto the label stack of the labeled IPv6 VPN packet. The topmost label imposed corresponds to the LSP that runs from the ingress PE router to the egress PE router. The BGP next-hop field identifies the egress PE router, and therefore the topmost label to be pushed on the stack. The bottom label is the label bound to the IPv6 VPN prefix by means of BGP.

    The CE devices can attach to the VRFs on the PE routers using both an IPv6 link and an IPv4 link. In Figure 1, the CE devices attach to the VRFs over an IPv4 link, and use MP-BGP to connect to the VRFs on the PE routers. This arrangement enables the PE routers to learn IPv6 routes from MP-BGP running over TCPv4 from the CE devices. You can also configure IPv6 static routes in the VRFs on the PE routers to reach the networks through the CE IPv6 link. Alternatively, you can configure the static routes with any routing protocol that supports IPv6, such as OSPFv3.

    Figure 1: IPv6 VPN Services over IPv4 MPLS

    IPv6 VPN Services over IPv4 MPLS

    The PE routers use an MP-BGP session over TCPv4 to advertise the IPv6 routes from the CE devices to the remote PE routers. The IPv6 routes are advertised as labeled VPNv6 routes with a BGP next hop set to the base tunnel endpoint destination address. The next hop is formatted as an IPv4-mapped IPv6 address.

    For IPv6 VPN services over an IPv4 backbone, the BGP next hop in the MP_REACH_NLRI attribute contains a VPN-IPV6 address with the RD set to zero and with the 16-byte IPv6 address encoded as an IPv4-mapped IPv6 address that contains the IPv4 address of the advertising PE router. This IPv4 address must be routable in the service provider’s backbone.

    BGP Control Plane Behavior Overview

    The VPN service in IPv6 VPN Services over IPv4 MPLS includes both CE 1 (VRF A) and CE 2 (VRF B). The MPLS base tunnels are established to tunnel endpoints PE 1 and PE 2 at their loopback interfaces. The loopback address for PE 1 is FFFF::1.1.1.1/128; for PE 2, it is FFFF::2.2.2.2/128.

    The BGP next hop that is advertised in the MP-BGP update includes the following:

    • A VPN-IPV6 address with the RD set to zero
    • The 16-byte IPv6 address encoded as an IPv4-mapped IPv6 address that contains the IPv4 loopback address of the advertising PE router

    The IPv4 IGP, such as OSPF, advertises the reachability of the loopback interfaces on the PE routers. LDP binds label L2 to 1.1.1.1/32 on the P router.

    CE–PE Behavior Overview

    CE 1 is connected to VRF A in PE 1 through an IPv4 interface. Similarly, CE 2 is connected to VRF B in PE 2 through an IPv4 interface. You can alternatively run OSPF to the CE devices over IPv6 links and redistribute the OSPF IPv6 routes into BGP.

    The MP-BGP sessions between the CE devices and the VRFs in the PE routers are established over TCPv4. The AFI value is 2, indicating IPv6; the SAFI value is 1, indicating unicast. CE 1 advertises IPv6 network 6001:0430::/48 to its MP-BGP peer in VRF A. CE 2 advertises 6001:0431::/48 to its MP-BGP peer in VRF B. When it receives the advertised prefix in VRF A, BGP adds 6001:0430::/48 to its BGP VPNv6 RIB with the stacked label L1, which MPLS allocated for this prefix. The default IPv6 VRF label is L1.

    PE–PE Behavior Overview

    PE 1 advertises the VPNv6 prefixes in the MP_REACH_NLRI attribute of the update messages sent to its MP-IBGP peer, PE 2. The AFI and SAFI values are negotiated for VPNv6. The AFI value is 2 for IPv6, and the SAFI value is 128 for MPLS-labeled VPN-IPv6.

    When PE 2 receives the VPNv6 prefix 6001:0430::/48 with label L1, it imports the prefix into VRF B because VRF B’s import route target matches the route target received in the MP-BGP update. For all labeled VPNv6 prefixes installed in VRF B that come from the same endpoint on PE 1 (loopback FFFF::1.1.1.1/128), a single dynamic IPv6 interface stacked on top of an MPLS tunnel head is created in VRF B regardless of the number of different stacked labels associated with each VPNv6 prefix. The prefix is then installed in VRF B’s routing table as pointing to this dynamic IPv6 interface.

    If PE 1 is not running either JunosE or Junos OS, each VPNv6 prefix usually has a different stacked label value sent in the MP-BGP update. If an implementation allocates one VPN interface per received stacked label, this behavior might potentially become a scaling issue if many dynamic IPv6 interfaces are allocated to resolve each VPNv6 prefix in VRF B.

    MPLS Data Plane Behavior Overview

    When PE 2 receives a data packet from CE 2 destined for the 6001:0430::/48 network, the router detects a native IPv6 packet on its link to CE 2. PE 2 does a lookup in its VRF B IPv6 routing table, prepends labels L2 and L1 to the IPv6 header, and then forwards this packet on its core-facing IPv6 dynamic interface. When the P router receives this packet, it performs a lookup on L2 and label switches the packet toward PE 1. The P router either replaces L2 with another label or pops that label if PE 1 requested PHP.

    When PE 1 receives the packet on its core-facing interface, it pops all the labels, and performs a lookup in the IPv6 table of VRF A (which is associated with L1) using the destination address in the IPv6 header. After that, PE 1 forwards the IPv6 packet out to CE 1 on the IPv6 link.

     

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    Published: 2014-08-18