List of Figures

Figure 1: BGP Peers
Figure 2: Internal and External BGP
Figure 3: Interior Gateway Protocols
Figure 4: Routing Without CIDR
Figure 5: Routing with CIDR
Figure 6: Transit Service
Figure 7: Nontransit Service
Figure 8: IPv6 Routing over TCP IPv4
Figure 9: IPv6 Routing over TCP IPv6
Figure 10: Configuring Neighbors
Figure 11: BGP Peer Groups
Figure 12: Using EBGP-Multihop
Figure 13: Prefixes Originating in an AS
Figure 14: Redistributing Routes into BGP
Figure 15: Advertising a Default Route
Figure 16: Setting a Static Default Route
Figure 17: Configuring Aggregate Addresses
Figure 18: Advertising a Route When Another Route is Present
Figure 19: Advertising a Route When Another Route is Absent
Figure 20: Advertising a Default Route When Another Route is Present
Figure 21: Filtering with Access Lists
Figure 22: Filtering Routes with an Access List
Figure 23: Filtering with AS-Path Access Lists
Figure 24: Assigning a Filter List
Figure 25: Route Map Filtering
Figure 26: Communities
Figure 27: Community Lists
Figure 28: Configuring Next-Hop Processing
Figure 29: Next-Hop Behavior for Broadcast Multiaccess Media
Figure 30: Next-Hop Behavior for Nonbroadcast Multiaccess Media
Figure 31: Assigning a Weight to a Neighbor Connection
Figure 32: Configuring the Local-Preference Attribute
Figure 33: The Origin Attribute
Figure 34: AS-Path Attributes
Figure 35: Configuring the MED
Figure 36: Synchronization
Figure 37: Disabling Synchronization
Figure 38: Administrative Distances
Figure 39: Administrative Distance and Synchronization
Figure 40: Backdoor Route
Figure 41: A Fully Meshed Autonomous System
Figure 42: A Confederation of Subautonomous Systems
Figure 43: Simple Route Reflection
Figure 44: Route Reflection: Logical Redundancy
Figure 45: Route Reflection: Physical and Logical Redundancy
Figure 46: BGP Route Reflection
Figure 47: Simple MPLS Domain
Figure 48: Label Switching
Figure 49: Label Stacking
Figure 50: Shim Header
Figure 51: TTL Processing on Incoming MPLS Packets
Figure 52: TTL Processing on Outgoing MPLS Packets
Figure 53: LSP Creation, Downstream-on-Demand, Ordered Control
Figure 54: LSP Creation, Downstream-Unsolicited, Independent Control
Figure 55: Explicit Routing in an MPLS Domain
Figure 56: MPLS Interface Stacking for the Platform Label Space
Figure 57: MPLS Interface Stacking for the Interface Label Space
Figure 58: LDP Tunneled Through an RSVP-TE Core
Figure 59: Flow for Initial Setting of EXP Bits for the First Label Pushed
Figure 60: Flow for Setting EXP Bits for All Pushed Labels
Figure 61: Simple MPLS Domain
Figure 62: FEC Aggregation and Equal-Cost Paths
Figure 63: Bypass Tunnel
Figure 64: Differentiated Services over an MPLS Network
Figure 65: Associations Between PHB ID, EXP Bits, and Traffic Classes/Colors
Figure 66: Signaled Mapping
Figure 67: Sample MPLS L3VPN Topology
Figure 68: ECMP BGP/MPLS VPN Scenario
Figure 69: BGP/MPLS VPN Scenario
Figure 70: BGP/MPLS VPN Components
Figure 71: Route and Label Distribution
Figure 72: Standard and Extended BGP Update Messages
Figure 73: BGP/MPLS VPN Route Exchange
Figure 74: LSP Creation for BGP/MPLS VPN
Figure 75: Traffic Across the MPLS Backbone of a BGP/MPLS VPN
Figure 76: Traffic Across the MPLS Backbone of a BGP/MPLS VPN
Figure 77: IPv6 VPN Services over IPv4 MPLS
Figure 78: Inter-AS Topology with VRFs on Each AS Boundary Router
Figure 79: Inter-AS Topology with End-to-End Stacked MPLS Tunnels
Figure 80: Topology for Three-label Stack Configuration for Inter-AS Option C
Figure 81: Topology for Inter-AS Option C with Route Reflectors
Figure 82: Inter-AS IPv6 VPN Services
Figure 83: Site Connectivity in a Full-Mesh VPN
Figure 84: Route Target Configuration for a Full-Mesh VPN
Figure 85: Site Connectivity in a Hub-and-Spoke VPN
Figure 86: Route Target Configuration for a Hub-and-Spoke VPN
Figure 87: Site Connectivity in an Overlapping VPN
Figure 88: Route Target Configuration for an Overlapping VPN
Figure 89: Overlapping VPNs on a Single PE
Figure 90: Fully Meshed VPNs
Figure 91: Hub-and-Spoke VPN
Figure 92: Import and Export Maps
Figure 93: Configuring Static Routes
Figure 94: BGP/MPLS VPN IBGP Example
Figure 95: BGP/MPLS VPN EIBGP Example
Figure 96: PE-to-CE Session
Figure 97: Network with Potential Routing Loops
Figure 98: Preventing Potential Routing Loops in the Network
Figure 99: Allowing Local AS in VPNv4 Address Family
Figure 100: Topology for Fast Reconvergence by Means of Unique VRF RDs, Before Tunnels Go Down
Figure 101: Topology for Fast Reconvergence by Means of Reachability Checking, After Tunnels Go Down
Figure 102: Static Default Route for Internet Access
Figure 103: Fallback Global Option
Figure 104: Global Import Map Applied to Routes Imported from VRF BGP RIB
Figure 105: BGP Session Between CE Router and Parent VR
Figure 106: BGP Session Between CE Router and Parent VR
Figure 107: Static Route to Shared IP Interface
Figure 108: Global Export Map Applied to Routes Exported from VRF BGP RIB
Figure 109: Carrier-of-Carriers Internet Service
Figure 110: Carrier-of-Carriers VPN Service
Figure 111: Carrier-of-Carrier IPv6 VPNs
Figure 112: IPv6 Tunneled over MPLS-IPv4
Figure 113: IPv6 Tunneled Across IPv4 Domains
Figure 114: OSPF Topology with Backdoor Link
Figure 115: OSPF Sham Link
Figure 116: Layer 2 Services over a Provider’s MPLS Network
Figure 117: Common ISP Network
Figure 118: E Series Router Replacing Remote ATM Switch
Figure 119: AAL5 Pseudowire and MPLS Tunnel
Figure 120: CE-Side MPLS L2VPN Tunnel over LAG
Figure 121: Local Cross-Connect Between Ethernet/VLAN Interfaces
Figure 122: CE-Side Load-Balancing Topology
Figure 123: Sample Frame Relay over MPLS Configuration
Figure 124: MPLS L2VPN Tunnel over VLAN over LAG Configuration Example
Figure 125: MPLS L2VPN Tunnel over LAG Configuration Example
Figure 126: MPLS L2VPN Tunnel over LAG Configuration Example
Figure 127: Ethernet Packet Distribution over Martini Circuits
Figure 128: Martini Circuit with Two Pseudowires Between PE-Facing Routers
Figure 129: Martini Circuit Deployment for Transmission of Multiple ATM VCs over a Single Pseudowire
Figure 130: VPLS Sample Topology
Figure 131: Topology for VPLS Configuration Example with BGP Signaling
Figure 132: Topology for VPLS Configuration Example with LDP Signaling
Figure 133: VPWS Sample Topology
Figure 134: VPWS Components
Figure 135: VPWS Cross-Connects
Figure 136: Topology for VPWS Configuration Example