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Storage Media and Routing Engines

 

Routing Engine and Packet Forwarding Engine (PFE) are the two primary components of Juniper Networks platforms. Junos OS software is installed on the routing engine and it is stored in storage media.

Routing Engines and Storage Media

Juniper Networks routing platforms are made up of two basic routing components:

  • Routing Engine—The Routing Engine controls the routing updates and system management.

  • Packet Forwarding Engine (PFE)—The Packet Forwarding Engine performs Layer 2 and Layer 3 packet switching, route lookups, and packet forwarding.

From a system administration perspective, you install the software onto the Routing Engine and during the installation, the appropriate software is forwarded to other components as necessary. Most Routing Engines include a CompactFlash card that stores Junos OS. On M Series Multiservice Edge Routers; MX240, MX480, and MX960 Universal Routing Platforms; T Series Core Routers; and TX Matrix routers, the system also includes a hard disk or solid-state drive (SSD) that acts as a backup boot drive. PTX Series Packet Transport Routers and the TX Matrix Plus router include a solid-state drive as a backup boot drive.

Note

The MX80 router is a single-board router with a built-in Routing Engine and single Packet Forwarding Engine. On an MX80 router, Junos OS is stored on dual, internal NAND flash devices. These devices provide the same functionality as a CompactFlash card and hard disk or solid-state drive (SSD).

Note

The ACX Series router is a single board router with a built-in Routing Engine and one Packet Forwarding Engine. The ACX router supports dual-root partitioning, which means that the primary and backup Junos OS images are kept in two independently bootable root partitions. If the primary partition becomes corrupted, the system remains fully functional by booting from the backup Junos OS image located in the other root partition.

On routing platforms with dual Routing Engines, each Routing Engine is independent with regard to upgrading the software. To install new software on both Routing Engines, you need to install the new software on each Routing Engine. On platforms with dual Routing Engines configured for high availability, you can use the unified in-service software upgrade procedure to upgrade the software. For more information about this procedure, see the High Availability Feature Guide for Routing Devices  .

Repartitioning Routing Engine System Storage to Increase the Swap Partition

You can increase the size of the swap partition by repartitioning the drive (hard disk or solid-state drive [SSD]) on the Routing Engine. This feature is first available in Junos OS Release 10.4R5, 11.1R3, and 11.2R1; in earlier Junos OS releases, the swap partition is not increased by the methods described here.

This behavior applies only to Routing Engines with more than 2 GB of RAM. The new size of the swap partition depends on the size of the drive and the amount of Routing Engine RAM.

  • When the drive is 32 GB or less, the swap partition is limited to 8 GB.

  • When the drive is larger than 32 GB, the swap partition matches the size of the Routing Engine RAM.

To repartition the drive, perform one of the following actions:

  • During the installation of a Junos OS software package (jinstall*), issue the request system reboot media disk command to boot from the drive instead of issuing the request system reboot command. The drive is automatically repartitioned. The request system reboot media disk command repartitions the drive only during a software upgrade.

  • Manually partition the drive by issuing the request system partition hard-disk command, and then reboot the router when the command completes.

Caution

Repartitioning the drive re-creates the /config and /var directories in the router file system. Although the contents of /config and /var/db are preserved, the remaining contents of /var are lost. For this reason, we recommend that you back up the /var directory before you repartition the SSD on a router with this configuration.

System Memory and Storage Media on Routers

Figure 1 shows examples of Routing Engines.

Figure 1: Routing Engines
Routing Engines

The ACX Series, M Series, MX Series, PTX Series, T Series, TX Matrix, and TX Matrix Plus routers include the following:

System Memory

Starting with Junos OS Release 9.0, all routing platforms require a minimum of 512 MB of system memory on each Routing Engine. All M7i and M10i routers delivered before December 7, 2007, had 256 MB of memory. These routers require a system memory upgrade before you install Junos OS Release 9.0 or a later release. To determine the amount of memory currently installed on your system, use the show chassis routing-engine command in the command-line interface (CLI).

For more information about upgrading your M7i or M10i router, see the Customer Support Center JTAC Technical Bulletin PSN-2007-10-001: https://www.juniper.net/alerts/viewalert.jsp?txtAlertNumber=PSN-2007-10-001&actionBtn=Search.

ACX2000 routers are shipped with 2 GB of memory and ACX1000 routers with 1 GB of memory.

Storage Media

Except for the ACX Series, MX80 routers, and MX104 routers, the M Series, MX Series, PTX Series, T Series, TX Matrix, and TX Matrix Plus routers use the following media storage devices:

  • CompactFlash card—The CompactFlash card is typically the primary storage device for most routers.

    Note

    M7i and M10i routers using RE-400 are not delivered from the factory with the CompactFlash card installed. In this case, the hard disk is the primary and only boot device. The M7i and M10i routers with RE-400 can be upgraded to include the CompactFlash card.

  • Hard disk or solid -state drive—For most routers, a hard disk or solid-state drive is the secondary boot device. When the CompactFlash card is not installed on the router, the hard disk or the solid-state drive becomes the primary boot device. The hard disk or solid-state drive is also used to store system log files and diagnostic dump files.

  • Emergency boot device—Depending on the router, the emergency boot device can be a PC card, a USB storage device, or an LS-120 floppy disk.

On MX80 routers, the internal NAND flash devices (first da0, then da1) act as the primary and secondary boot devices.

On ACX Series routers, the internal NAND flash devices (first da0s1, then da0s2) act as the primary and secondary boot devices.

Emergency boot devices can be used to revive a routing platform that has a damaged Junos OS. When an emergency boot device is attached to the router, the router attempts to boot from that device before it boots from the CompactFlash card, solid-state drive (SSD), or hard disk.

On an ACX Series router, the emergency boot device is a USB storage device.

On MX104 routers, the internal NAND flash device (da0) mounted on the internal eUSB card acts as the primary boot and storage device. On MX104 routers, the emergency boot device is a USB storage device that is plugged into one of the USB ports in the front plate.

When booting from an emergency boot device, the router requests a boot acknowledgment on the console interface. If you enter yes, the emergency boot device repartitions the primary boot device and reloads Junos OS onto the primary boot device. After the loading is complete, the routing platform requests that you remove the emergency boot device and reboot the system. After the reboot is complete, you must perform an initial configuration of the router before it can be used on your network.

Note

For routers with RE-MX-X6, RE-MX-X8, and RE-PTX-X8 Routing Engines, a set of two 64-GB SSDs are available for storage and redundancy. For more information see Storage Partitioning and Redundancy topic in Salient Features of the Routing Engines with VM Host Support section.

Routing Engines and Storage Media Names (ACX Series, M Series, MX Series, PTX Series, T Series, TX Matrix, TX Matrix Plus, and JCS 1200 Routers)

Table 1 specifies the storage media names by Routing Engine. The storage media device names are displayed when the router boots.

Table 1: Routing Engines and Storage Media Names (ACX Series, M Series, MX Series, T Series, TX Matrix, TX Matrix Plus, and JCS 1200 Routers)

Routing Engine

Type of Junos OS

CompactFlash Card

Hard Disk

Solid-State Drive

Removable Media Emergency Boot Device

RE-400-768 (RE5)

FreeBSD 6.x

ad0

ad1

No

ad3

RE-600-2048 (RE3)

FreeBSD 6.x

ad0

ad1

No

ad3

RE-850-1536 (RE-850)

FreeBSD 6.x

ad0

ad1

No

ad3

RE-A-1000-2048 (RE-A-1000)

FreeBSD 6.x

ad0

ad2

No

da0

RE-A-1800x2 (RE-A-1800)

FreeBSD 6.x

ad0

No

Yes

SSD1: ad1

SSD2: ad2

da0

RE-S-1300-2048 (RE-S-1300)

FreeBSD 6.x

ad0

ad2

No

da0

RE-S-1800x2

RE-S-1800x4

(RE-S-1800)

FreeBSD 6.x

ad0

No

Yes

SSD1: ad1

SSD2: ad2

da0

FreeBSD 10.x/11.x

RE-B-1800X1-4G-S

FreeBSD 6.x

ad0

No

Yes

SSD1: ad1

da0

RE-1600-2048 (RE4)

FreeBSD 6.x

ad0

ad1

No

ad3 and ad4

RE-A-2000-4096 (RE-A-2000)

FreeBSD 6.x

ad0

ad2

No

da0

RE-S-2000-4096 (RE-S-2000)

FreeBSD 6.x

ad0

ad2

No

da0

RE-MX-104

FreeBSD 6.x

No

da0

No

da1 and da2

RE-DUO-C2600-16G (RE-DUO-2600)

FreeBSD 6.x

ad0

No

ad1

da0

RE-DUO-C1800-8G- (RE-DUO-1800)

FreeBSD 6.x

ad0

No

ad1

da0

RE-DUO-C1800-16G

FreeBSD 6.x

ad0

No

ad1

da0

RE-JCS1200-1x2330

FreeBSD 6.x

da0

da1

No

da2

RE-PTX-X8-64G

FreeBSD 6.x

No

No

Yes

SSD1: sda

SSD2: sdb

da0

RE-S-X6-64G

FreeBSD 6.x

No

No

Yes

SSD1: sda

SSD2: sdb

da0

REMX2K-X8-64G

FreeBSD 6.x

No

No

Yes

SSD1: sda

SSD2: sdb

da0

Note

On MX80 routers, the Routing Engine is a built-in device and has no model number. The dual internal NAND flash devices are da0 and da1. The USB storage device is da2.

Note

On ACX Series routers, the Routing Engine is a built-in device which does not have a model number. The dual internal NAND flash devices are da0s1 and da0s2. The USB storage device is da0s2a. Use the show chassis hardware models command to obtain the field-replaceable unit (FRU) model number—for example, ACX2000BASE-DC for the ACX2000 router.

To view the storage media currently available on your system, use the CLI show system storage command.

System Memory and Storage Media for SRX Series Services Gateways

SRX Series Device Overview

Figure 2 shows an example of SRX240 device.

Figure 2: SRX240 Device Front Panel
SRX240 Device Front Panel

Figure 3 shows an example of SRX650 device.

Figure 3: SRX650 Device System Routing Engine
SRX650 Device System Routing Engine

Figure 4 shows the front panel of an SRX345 device.

Figure 4: SRX345 Device Front Panel
SRX345 Device
Front Panel

Figure 5 shows an example of an SRX1500 device.

Figure 5: SRX1500 Device Front Panel
SRX1500 Device Front Panel

Figure 6 shows an example of an SRX4200 device.

Figure 6: SRX4200 Services Gateway Front Panel
SRX4200 Services Gateway Front
Panel

Figure 7 shows an example of an SRX4600 device.

Figure 7: SRX4600 Services Gateway Front Panel
SRX4600
Services Gateway Front Panel

Figure 8 shows an example of an SRX5800 device Routing Engine.

Figure 8: SRX5800 Device Routing Engine
SRX5800 Device Routing Engine

System Memory

The amount of free disk space necessary to upgrade a device with a new version of Junos OS can vary from one release to another for different SRX Series devices. Check the Junos OS software version you are installing to determine the free disk space requirements.

To determine the amount of free disk space on the device, issue the show system storage detail command. The command output displays statistics about the amount of free disk space in the device file systems.

Storage Media

The SRX100, SRX210, SRX240, Services Gateway can boot from the following storage media (in the order of priority):

  • Internal NAND Flash (default; always present)

  • USB storage key (alternate)

The SRX550 and SRX650 Services Gateway can boot from the following storage media (in the order of priority):

  • CompactFlash (default; always present)

  • External CompactFlash card (alternate) (SRX650 only)

  • USB storage key (alternate)

The SRX300, SRX320, SRX340, 345 Services Gateway can boot from the following storage media (in the order of priority):

  • Internal NAND flash device mounted on the internal eUSB card (default; always present)

  • USB storage key (alternate)

The SRX550M Services Gateway can boot from the following storage media (in the order of priority):

  • CompactFlash (default; always present)

  • USB storage key (alternate)

SRX1500 device use the following media storage devices:

  • Internal eSATA flash disk (default; always present)

  • SSD

SRX1400, SRX3400, SRX3600, SRX5400, SRX5600, SRX5800 devices use the following media storage devices:

  • The CompactFlash card in the Routing Engine

  • The hard disk in the Routing Engine

    Note

    You can also use a Junos OS image stored on a USB flash drive that you insert into the Routing Engine faceplate.

The SRX4100 and SRX4200 devices include the following storage media:

  • Internal eSATA flash disk (default; always present)

  • SSD

The SRX4600 devices include the following storage media:

  • Internal eSATA flash disk (default; always present)

  • SSD

Table 2 specifies the storage media names used by the SRX Series devices. The storage media device names are displayed as the device boots.

Table 2: Storage Media Names

Device

Internal CompactFlash Card

USB Storage Media Devices

SRX Series device

da0

da1

To view the storage media currently available on your system, use the CLI show system storage command.

Accessing USB Storage on PTX1000 Routers

On PTX1000 routers, you can only view the USB storage information from Junos OS by using the CLI command show vmhost hardware, but cannot access it. However, you can access the USB storage information from the Linux host. From the Linux host, you can also send the USB storage device information with images across different sites where PTX1000 routers are deployed.

To access the USB storage device information on PTX1000 routers:

  1. In Junos OS, ensure that the PTX1000 USB image to be copied to the USB storage device is present on the var/tmp folder of Junos OS. To copy the image from the /var/tmp directory of Junos OS to the /var/tmp directory of a Linux host, execute the following command on Junos OS:

    vhclient rcp /var/tmp image-name

    vhclient -s

  2. On the Linux host shell, execute the following command:

    In the command above, /dev/sdc is the USB storage device detected by the Linux host. You can determine the name of the USB storage device from host logs as shown in the sample below:

    In this example, sdc is the name of the USB storage device.

    Note

    The /var/tmp directory of a Linux host is mounted on the RAM (at the ramfs location), which is volatile storage, and is thus lost when you perform power cycling of or reboot the device. However, the Junos OS /var/tmp directory resides on the physical (nonvolatile) hard disk and thus exists even after rebooting or power cycling.