Autoinstallation of Configuration Files
Autoinstallation is the automatic configuration of devices over the network without manual intervention, or without any need for any configuration.
Understanding Autoinstallation of Configuration Files
Autoinstallation is the automatic configuration of a device over the network from a preexisting configuration file that you create and store on a configuration server—typically a Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) server. You can use autoinstallation to configure new devices automatically and to deploy multiple devices from a central location in the network.
You enable autoinstallation so that the switches in your network implement autoinstallation when they are powered on. To configure autoinstallation, you specify a configuration server, an autoinstallation interface, and a protocol for IP address acquisition.
The QFX5200 switches only work with HTTP for autoinstallation. TFTP and FTP protocols are not supported. Autoinstallation as a feature is not supported on all devices. Refer to your hardware information for specific details.
Typical Uses for Autoinstallation
Typical uses for autoinstallation of the software include:
To deploy and update multiple devices from a central location in the network.
To update a device—Autoinstallation occurs when a device that has been manually configured for autoinstallation is powered on.
Autoinstallation Configuration Files and IP Addresses
For the autoinstallation process to work, you must store one or more host-specific or default configuration files on a configuration server in the network and have a service available—typically Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)—to assign an IP address to the switch.
You can set up the following configuration files for autoinstallation on the device:
network.conf—Default configuration file for autoinstallation, in which you specify IP addresses and associated hostnames for devices on the network.
switch.conf—Default configuration file for autoinstallation with a minimum configuration sufficient for you to telnet to the device and configure it manually.
hostname.conf—Host-specific configuration file for autoinstallation on a device that contains all the configuration information necessary for the device. In the filename, hostname is replaced with the hostname assigned to the device.
If the server with the autoinstallation configuration file is not on the same LAN segment as the new device, or if a specific device is required by the network, you must configure an intermediate device directly attached to the new device, through which the new device can send TFTP, Boot Protocol (BOOTP), and Domain Name System (DNS) requests. In this case, you specify the IP address of the intermediate device as the location to receive TFTP requests for autoinstallation.
Typical Autoinstallation Process on a New Device
When the device configured for autoinstallation is powered on, it performs the following autoinstallation tasks:
- The device sends out DHCP or BOOTP requests on each connected
interface simultaneously to obtain an IP address.
If a DHCP server responds to these requests, it provides the device with some or all of the following information:
An IP address and subnet mask for the autoinstallation interface.
The location of the (typically) TFTP server, Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) server, or FTP server on which the configuration file is stored.
The name of the configuration file to be requested from the TFTP server.
The IP address or hostname of the TFTP server.
If the DHCP server provides the server’s hostname, a DNS server must be available on the network to resolve the name to an IP address.
The IP address of an intermediate device if the configuration server is on a different LAN segment from the device.
- After the device acquires an IP address, the autoinstallation
process on the device attempts to download a configuration file in
the following ways:
- If the DHCP server specifies the host-specific configuration
hostname.conf, the device uses that filename in the TFTP server request. The autoinstallation process on the new device makes three unicast TFTP requests for
hostname.conf. If these attempts fail, the device broadcasts three requests to any available TFTP server for the file.
- If the device does not locate a
hostname.conffile, the autoinstallation process sends three unicast TFTP requests for a
network.conffile that contains the device’s hostname-to-IP-address mapping information. If these attempts fail, the device broadcasts three requests to any available TFTP server for the file.
- If the device fails to find a
network.conffile that contains a hostname entry for the device, the autoinstallation process sends out a DNS request and attempts to resolve the device's IP address to a hostname.
- If the device determines its hostname, it sends a TFTP
request for the
- If the device is unable to map its IP address to a hostname,
it sends TFTP requests for the default configuration file
device.conf. The TFTP request procedure is the same as for the
- If the DHCP server specifies the host-specific configuration file
- After the device locates a configuration file on a TFTP server, the autoinstallation process downloads the file, installs the file on the device, and commits the configuration.
Configuring Autoinstallation of Configuration Files (CLI Procedure)
Autoinstallation is the automatic configuration of a device over the network from a pre-existing configuration file that you create and store on a configuration server—typically a Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) server. You can use autoinstallation to automatically deploy multiple devices from a central location in the network.
To specify autoinstallation to run when you power on a device already installed in your network, you can enable it by specifying one or more interfaces, protocols, and configuration servers to be used for autoinstallation.
Before you explicitly enable and configure autoinstallation on the device, perform these tasks as needed for your network’s configuration:
Have a service available—typically Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)—to assign an IP address to the device.
Configure a DHCP server on your network to meet your network requirements. You can configure a switch to operate as a DHCP server.
Create one of the following configuration files, and store it on a TFTP server (or HTTP server or FTP server) in the network:
A host-specific file with the name
hostname.conffor each device undergoing autoinstallation. Replace
hostnamewith the name of a device. The
hostname.conffile typically contains all the configuration information necessary for the device with this hostname.
A default configuration file named
device.confwith the minimum configuration necessary to enable you to telnet into the new device for further configuration.
Physically attach the device to the network using a Gigabit Ethernet port.
If you configure the DHCP server to provide only the TFTP server hostname, add an IP address-to-hostname mapping entry for the TFTP server to the DNS database file on the Domain Name System (DNS) server in the network.
If the device is not on the same network segment as the DHCP server (or other device providing IP address resolution), configure an existing device as an intermediate device to receive TFTP and DNS requests and forward them to the TFTP server and the DNS server. You must configure the LAN or serial interface on the intermediate device with the IP addresses of the hosts providing TFTP and DNS services. Connect this interface to the device.
If you are using
hostname.conffiles for autoinstallation, you must also complete the following tasks:
Configure the DHCP server to provide a
hostname.conffilename to each device. Each device uses its
hostname.conffilename to request a configuration file from the TFTP server. Copy the necessary
hostname.confconfiguration files to the TFTP server.
Create a default configuration file named
network.conf, and copy it to the TFTP server. This file contains IP-address-to-hostname mapping entries. If the DHCP server does not send a
hostname.conffilename to a new device, the device uses
network.confto resolve its hostname based on its IP address.
Alternatively, you can add the IP-address-to-hostname mapping entry for the device to a DNS database file.
The device uses the hostname to request a
hostname.conffile from the TFTP server.
To configure autoinstallation:
- Specify the URL address of one or more servers from which
to obtain configuration files.
user@host# set autoinstallation configuration-servers tftp://tftpconfig.example.com
You can also use an FTP address, for example,
- Configure one or more Ethernet interfaces to perform autoinstallation
and one or two procurement protocols for each interface. The switch
uses the protocols to send a request for an IP address for the interface:
user@host# set autoinstallation interfaces ge-0/0/0 bootp
To verify autoinstallation, from the CLI, enter the show system autoinstallation status command.
user@host> show system autoinstallation status
Autoinstallation status: Master state: Active Last committed file: None Configuration server of last committed file: 10.25.100.1 Interface: Name: ge-0/0/0 State: Configuration Acquisition Acquired: Address: 192.168.124.75 Hostname: host-ge-000 Hostname source: DNS Configuration filename: device-ge-000.conf Configuration filename server: 10.25.100.3 Address acquisition: Protocol: DHCP Client Acquired address: None Protocol: RARP Client Acquired address: None Interface: Name: ge-0/0/1 State: None Address acquisition: Protocol: DHCP Client Acquired address: None Protocol: RARP Client Acquired address: None