Understanding Junos OS Infrastructure and Processes
Junos OS includes processes for Internet Protocol (IP) routing and for managing interfaces, networks, and the switch.
Junos OS runs on the Routing Engine. The Routing Engine kernel coordinates communication among the Junos OS processes and provides a link to the Packet Forwarding Engine.
Using the Junos OS command-line interface (CLI), you configure switching features and set the properties of network interfaces. After activating a software configuration, use either the Junos Space or CLI user interface to monitor, manage operations, and diagnose protocol and network connectivity problems.
Routing Engine and Packet Forwarding Engine
A switch has two primary software processing components:
Packet Forwarding Engine—Processes packets; applies filters, routing policies, and other features; and forwards packets to the next hop along the route to their final destination.
Routing Engine—Provides three main functions:
Creates the packet forwarding switch , which provides route lookup, filtering, and switching on incoming data packets, and then directs outbound packets to the appropriate interface for transmission to the network.
Maintains the routing tables used by the switch and controls the routing protocols that run on the switch.
Provides control and monitoring functions for the switch, including controlling power and monitoring system status.
Junos OS Processes
Junos OS running on the Routing Engine and Packet Forwarding Engine consists of multiple processes that are responsible for individual functions.
The separation of functions provides operational stability, because each process accesses its own protected memory space. In addition, because each process is a separate software package, you can selectively upgrade all or part of the Junos OS for added flexibility.
Table 1 describes the primary Junos OS processes.
Table 1: Junos OS Processes
Detects hardware on the system that is used to configure network interfaces.
Monitors the physical status of hardware components and field-replaceable units (FRUs), detecting when environment sensors such as temperature sensors are triggered.
Relays signals and interrupts—for example, when devices are taken offline, so that the system can close sessions and shut down gracefully.
DNS server process
Resolves hostnames into addresses.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) process
Enables a DHCP server to allocate network IP addresses and deliver configuration settings to client hosts without user intervention.
Ethernet switching process
Handles Layer 2 switching functionality such as MAC address learning, Spanning Tree Protocol, and access port security.
Manages Ethernet switching interfaces, VLANs, and VLAN interfaces.
Firewall management process
Manages the firewall configuration and helps accept or reject packets that are transiting an interface on a switch.
Defines how routing protocols operate on the partition. The overall performance of the partition is largely determined by the effectiveness of the forwarding process.
Configures and monitors network interfaces by defining physical characteristics such as link encapsulation, hold times, and keepalive timers.
Integrated Local Management Interface (ILMI) process
Provides bidirectional exchange of management information between two ATM interfaces across a physical connection.
Link Management Protocol (LMP) process
Establishes and maintains LMP control channels.
Provides communication between the other processes and an interface to the configuration database.
Populates the configuration database with configuration information and retrieves the information when queried by other processes to ensure that the system operates as configured.
Interacts with the other processes when commands are issued through one of the user interfaces on the partition.
If a process terminates or fails to start when called, the management process attempts to restart it a limited number of times to prevent thrashing and logs any failure information for further investigation.
Multicast snooping process
Makes Layer 2 devices, such as VLAN switches, aware of Layer 3 information, such as the media access control (MAC) addresses of members of a multicast group.
Secure Neighbor Discovery (SEND) protocol process
Protects Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) messages.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) process
Enables the monitoring of network devices from a central location and provides the switch’s SNMP master agent.
Tunnel OAM process
Enables the Operation, Administration, and Maintenance of Layer 2 tunneled networks. Layer 2 protocol tunneling (L2PT) allows service providers to send Layer 2 protocol data units (PDUs) across the provider’s cloud and deliver them to Juniper Networks EX Series Ethernet Switches that are not part of the local broadcast domain.
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) process
Enables hosts on a LAN to make use of redundant routing platforms on that LAN without requiring more than the static configuration of a single default route on the hosts.
Junos OS Baseline Network Operations Guide