Multiservice Access Node Overview
A multiservice access node is a broader term that refers to a group of commonly used aggregation devices. These devices include digital subscriber line access multiplexers (DSLAMs) used in xDSL networks, optical line termination (OLT) for PON/FTTx networks, and Ethernet switches for Active Ethernet connections. Modern MSANs often support all of these connections, as well as providing connections for additional circuits such as plain old telephone service (referred to as POTS) or Digital Signal 1 (DS1 or T1).
The defining function of a multiservice access node is to aggregate traffic from multiple subscribers. At the physical level, the MSAN also converts traffic from the last mile technology (for example, ADSL) to Ethernet for delivery to subscribers.
You can broadly categorize MSANs into three types based on how they forward traffic in the network:
Layer–2 MSAN—This type of MSAN is essentially a Layer 2 switch (though typically not a fully functioning switch) with some relevant enhancements. These MSANs use Ethernet (or ATM) switching to forward traffic. The MSAN forwards all subscriber traffic upstream to an edge router that acts as the centralized control point and prevents direct subscriber-to-subscriber communication. Ethernet Link Aggregation (LAG) provides the resiliency in this type of network.
Layer 2 DSLAMs cannot interpret IGMP, so they cannot selectively replicate IPTV channels.
Layer–3 aware MSAN—This IP-aware MSAN can interpret and respond to IGMP requests by locally replicating a multicast stream and forwarding the stream to any subscriber requesting it. Layer 3 awareness is important when supporting IPTV traffic to perform channel changes (sometimes referred to as channel zaps). Static IP-aware MSANs always receive all multicast television channels. They do not have the ability to request that specific channels be forwarded to the DSLAM. Dynamic IP-aware DSLAMs, however, can inform the network to begin (or discontinue) sending individual channels to the DSLAM. Configuring IGMP proxy or IGMP snooping on the DSLAM accomplishes this function.
Layer–3 MSAN—These MSANs use IP routing functionality rather than Layer 2 technologies to forward traffic. The advantage of this forwarding method is the ability to support multiple upstream links going to different upstream routers and improving network resiliency. However, to accomplish this level of resiliency, you must assign a separate IP subnetwork to each MSAN, adding a level of complexity that can be more difficult to maintain or manage.
In choosing a MSAN type, refer to Figure 1: