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    Understanding RMON for Monitoring Service Quality

    Health and performance monitoring can benefit from the remote monitoring of SNMP variables by the local SNMP agents running on each router. The SNMP agents compare MIB values against predefined thresholds and generate exception alarms without the need for polling by a central SNMP management platform. This is an effective mechanism for proactive management, as long as the thresholds have baselines determined and set correctly. For more information, see RFC 2819, Remote Network Monitoring MIB.

    This topic includes the following sections:

    Setting Thresholds

    By setting a rising and a falling threshold for a monitored variable, you can be alerted whenever the value of the variable falls outside of the allowable operational range. (See Figure 1.)

    Figure 1: Setting Thresholds

    Setting Thresholds

    Events are only generated when the threshold is first crossed in any one direction rather than after each sample period. For example, if a rising threshold crossing event is raised, no more threshold crossing events will occur until a corresponding falling event. This considerably reduces the quantity of alarms that are produced by the system, making it easier for operations staff to react when alarms do occur.

    To configure remote monitoring, specify the following pieces of information:

    • The variable to be monitored (by its SNMP object identifier)
    • The length of time between each inspection
    • A rising threshold
    • A falling threshold
    • A rising event
    • A falling event

    Before you can successfully configure remote monitoring, you should identify what variables need to be monitored and their allowable operational range. This requires some period of baselining to determine the allowable operational ranges. An initial baseline period of at least three months is not unusual when first identifying the operational ranges and defining thresholds, but baseline monitoring should continue over the life span of each monitored variable.

    RMON Command-Line Interface

    Junos OS provides two mechanisms you use to control the Remote Monitoring agent on the router: command-line interface (CLI) and SNMP. To configure an RMON entry using the CLI, include the following statements at the [edit snmp] hierarchy level:

    rmon {
    alarm index {
    description;
    falling-event-index;
    falling-threshold;
    intervals;
    rising-event-index;
    rising-threshold;
    sample-type (absolute-value | delta-value);
    startup-alarm (falling | rising | rising-or-falling);
    variable;
    }
    event index {
    community;
    description;
    type (log | trap | log-and-trap | none);
    }
    }

    If you do not have CLI access, you can configure remote monitoring using the SNMP Manager or management application, assuming SNMP access has been granted. (See Table 1.) To configure RMON using SNMP, perform SNMP Set requests to the RMON event and alarm tables.

    RMON Event Table

    Set up an event for each type that you want to generate. For example, you could have two generic events, rising and falling, or many different events for each variable that is being monitored (for example, temperature rising event, temperature falling event, firewall hit event, interface utilization event, and so on). Once the events have been configured, you do not need to update them.

    Table 1: RMON Event Table

    Field

    Description

    eventDescription

    Text description of this event

    eventType

    Type of event (for example, log, trap, or log and trap)

    eventCommunity

    Trap group to which to send this event (as defined in the Junos OS configuration, which is not the same as the community)

    eventOwner

    Entity (for example, manager) that created this event

    eventStatus

    Status of this row (for example, valid, invalid, or createRequest)

    RMON Alarm Table

    The RMON alarm table stores the SNMP object identifiers (including their instances) of the variables that are being monitored, together with any rising and falling thresholds and their corresponding event indexes. To create an RMON request, specify the fields shown in Table 2.

    Table 2: RMON Alarm Table

    Field

    Description

    alarmStatus

    Status of this row (for example, valid, invalid, or createRequest)

    alarmInterval

    Sampling period (in seconds) of the monitored variable

    alarmVariable

    OID (and instance) of the variable to be monitored

    alarmValue

    Actual value of the sampled variable

    alarmSampleType

    Sample type (absolute or delta changes)

    alarmStartupAlarm

    Initial alarm (rising, falling, or either)

    alarmRisingThreshold

    Rising threshold against which to compare the value

    alarmFallingThreshold

    Falling threshold against which to compare the value

    alarmRisingEventIndex

    Index (row) of the rising event in the event table

    alarmFallingEventIndex

    Index (row) of the falling event in the event table

    Both the alarmStatus and eventStatus fields are entryStatus primitives, as defined in RFC 2579, Textual Conventions for SMIv2.

    Troubleshooting RMON

    You troubleshoot the RMON agent, rmopd, that runs on the router by inspecting the contents of the Juniper Networks enterprise RMON MIB, jnxRmon, which provides the extensions listed in Table 3 to the RFC 2819 alarmTable.

    Table 3: jnxRmon Alarm Extensions

    Field

    Description

    jnxRmonAlarmGetFailCnt

    Number of times the internal Get request for the variable failed

    jnxRmonAlarmGetFailTime

    Value of sysUpTime when the last failure occurred

    jnxRmonAlarmGetFailReason

    Reason why the Get request failed

    jnxRmonAlarmGetOkTime

    Value of sysUpTime when the variable moved out of failure state

    jnxRmonAlarmState

    Status of this alarm entry

    Monitoring the extensions in this table provides clues as to why remote alarms may not behave as expected.

    Modified: 2017-08-31