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Understanding Using MPLS-Based Layer 3 VPNs on Switches
On the QFX Series switches and on EX4600 switches, you can use MPLS-based Layer 3 virtual private networks (VPNs) to securely connect geographically diverse sites across an MPLS network. MPLS services can be used to connect various sites to a backbone network and to ensure better performance for low-latency applications such as voice over IP (VoIP) and other business-critical functions.
A VPN uses a public telecommunications infrastructure, such as the Internet, to provide remote offices or individual users with secure access to their organization’s network. VPNs are designed to provide the same level of performance and security as privately owned or leased networks but without the attendant costs.
This topic describes:
MPLS-Based Layer 3 VPNs
In Junos OS, Layer 3 VPNs are based on RFC 4364, BGP/MPLS IP Virtual Private Networks. RFC 4364 defines a mechanism by which service providers can use their IP backbones to provide VPN services to their customers. A Layer 3 VPN is a set of sites that share common routing information and whose connectivity is controlled by a collection of policies. The sites that make up a Layer 3 VPN are connected over a provider’s existing public Internet backbone.
Customer networks, because they are private, can use either public or private addresses, as defined in RFC 1918, Address Allocation for Private Internets. When customer networks that use private addresses connect to the public Internet infrastructure, the private addresses might overlap with the same private addresses used by other network users. BGP/MPLS VPNs solve this problem by adding a VPN identifier prefix to each address from a particular VPN site, thereby creating an address that is unique both within the VPN and on the public Internet. In addition, each VPN has its own VPN-specific routing table that contains the routing information for that VPN only. Two different VPNs can use overlapping addresses. Each route within a VPN is assigned an MPLS label (for example, MPLS-ARCH, MPLS-BGP, or MPLS-ENCAPS). When BGP distributes a VPN route, it also distributes an MPLS label for that route. Before a customer data packet travels across the service provider’s backbone, it is encapsulated along with the MPLS label that corresponds to the route within the customer’s VPN that is the best match based on the packet’s destination address. This MPLS packet is further encapsulated with another MPLS label or with an IP, so that it gets tunneled across the backbone to the egress provider edge (PE) switch. Thus, the backbone core switches do not need to know the VPN routes.
QFX5100 switches also support interprovider VPNs, and carrier-of-carriers VPNs. For more information, see Understanding Interprovider and Carrier-of-Carriers VPNs