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Junos OS Architecture Overview
This topic provides an overview of the Junos OS routing process architecture:
Routing Process Architecture
The routing process is handled by the following two components (see Figure 1):
Because this architecture separates control operations such as routing updates and system management from packet forwarding, the router can deliver superior performance and highly reliable Internet operation.
Packet Forwarding Engine
The Packet Forwarding Engine uses application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) to perform Layer 2 and Layer 3 packet switching, route lookups, and packet forwarding. The Packet Forwarding Engine forwards packets between input and output interfaces.
The Routing Engine controls the routing updates and the system management. The Routing Engine consists of routing protocol software processes running inside a protected memory environment on a general-purpose computer platform. The Routing Engine handles all of the routing protocol processes and other software processes that control the routers’ interfaces, some of the chassis components, system management, and user access to the router. These routers and software processes run on top of a kernel that interacts with the Packet Forwarding Engine.
The Routing Engine has these features:
Routing protocol packets processing—All routing protocol packets from the network are directed to the Routing Engine, and therefore do not unnecessarily delay the Packet Forwarding Engine.
Software modularity—Software functions are in separate processes, so a failure of one process has little or no effect on other software processes.
In-depth IP functionality—Each routing protocol is implemented with a complete set of IP features and provides full flexibility for advertising, filtering, and modifying routes. Routing policies are set according to route parameters, such as prefix, prefix lengths, and Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) attributes.
Scalability—Junos OS routing tables are designed to hold all the routes used in current and near-future networks. Additionally, Junos OS can efficiently support large numbers of interfaces and virtual circuits.
Storage and change management—Configuration files, system images, and microcode are held and maintained in one primary and two secondary storage systems, permitting local or remote upgrades.
Monitoring efficiency and flexibility—Alarms are generated and packets are counted without adversely affecting packet forwarding performance.
The Routing Engine constructs and maintains one or more routing tables. From the routing tables, the Routing Engine derives a table of active routes, called the forwarding table, which is then copied into the Packet Forwarding Engine. The forwarding table in the Packet Forwarding Engine can be updated without interrupting the router’s forwarding.