Understanding Virtio Usage
You can enable communication between a Linux-based virtualized device and a virtualized network function (VNF) module by bridging the two using a library called virtio.
When a physical device is virtualized, both physical NIC interfaces and external physical switches as well as the virtual NIC interfaces and internal virtual switches coexist. So when the isolated VNFs in the device, each with their own memory and disk space and CPU cycles, attempt to communicate with each other, the multiple ports, MAC addresses, and IP addresses in use pose a challenge. With the virtio library, traffic flow between the isolated virtual functions becomes simpler and easier.
Virtio is part of the standard Linux libvirt library of useful virtualization functions and is normally included in most versions of Linux. Virtio is a software-only approach to inter-VNF communication. Virtio provides a way to connect individual virtual processes. The bundled nature of virtio makes it possible for any Linux-run device to use virtio.
Virtio enables VNFs and containers to use simple internal bridges to send and receive traffic. Traffic can still arrive and leave through an external bridge. An external bridge uses a virtualized internal NIC interface on one end of the bridge and a physical external NIC interface on the other end of the bridge to send and receive packets and frames. An internal bridge, of which there are several types, links two virtualized internal NIC interfaces by bridging them through a virtualized internal switch function in the host OS. The overall architecture of virtio is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1 shows the inner structure of a server device with a single physical NIC card running a host OS (the outer cover of the device is not shown). The host OS contains the virtual switch or bridge implemented with virtio. Above the OS, several virtual machines employ virtual NICs that communicate through virtio. There are multiple virtual machines running, numbered 1 to N in the figure. The standard “dot dot dot” notation indicates possible virtual machines and NICs not shown in the figure. The dotted lines indicate possible data paths using virtio. Note that traffic entering or leaving the device does so through the physical NIC and port.
Figure 1 also shows traffic entering and leaving the device through the internal bridge. Virtual Machine 1 links its virtualized internal NIC interface to the physical external NIC interface. Virtual Machine 2 and Virtual Machine N link internal virtual NICs through the internal bridge in the host OS. Note that these interface might have VLAN labels associated with them, or internal interface names. Frames sent across this internal bridge between VNFs never leave the device. Note the position of the bridge (and virtualized switch function) in the host OS. Note the use of simple bridging in the device. These bridges can be configured either with regular Linux commands or the use of CLI configuration statements. Scripts can be used to automate the process.
Virtio is a virtualization standard for disk and network device drivers. Only the guest device driver (the devices driver for the virtualized functions) needs to know that it is running in a virtual environment. These drivers cooperate with the hypervisor and the virtual functions get performance benefits in return for the added complication. Virtio is architecturally similar to, but not the same as, Xen paravirtualized device drivers (drivers added to a guest to make them faster when running on Xen). VMWare’s Guest Tools are also similar to virtio.
Note that much of the traffic is concentrated on the host OS CPU—more explicitly, on the virtualized internal bridges. Therefore, the host CPU must be able to perform adequately as the device scales.